Coronary Heart Disease Symptoms and Causes

Coronary Heart Disease Symptoms and Causes

Coronary heart failure is caused by the accumulation inside the coronary arteries of a waxy material called plaque. The arteries which carry the heart muscle with oxygenated blood. A blood clot will develop on its surface if the plate splits, which will obstruct the flow of blood through the coronary artery that triggers heart failure. Research would highlight the potential triggers and preventive factors of coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is one of the diseases that causes most deaths in the city, in line with the research carried out by the national health institute in the Merced country of Carlifornia. Merced is ranked 46th in the amount of fatalities used by coronary heart disease depending on age, the mortality rate for 2006-210, 25 deaths per 110,000 of the population induced by coronary heart disease, in comparison to the quantitative statistics. In comparison, 16,000 persons in Merced County alone have been diagnosed with coronary heart disease, which is 9% of Mercede County’s overall population. In addition, obesity is one of the causes of coronary heart disease, and 29 percent of the overall population of Merced County is also rated top, meaning that there is a greater risk of rising mortality rates induced by coronary heart disease.1 Magnitude of the problem

Any of the study carried out has had a positive effect on the general populace of Merced County. Since the data obtained adequately illustrates the mechanisms of coronary heart disease, and how it can be prevented and avoided at the same time.

Coronary Heart Disease Symptoms and Causes

Literature Review

The literature review coverage, as well as studies on coronary heart disease, shows a substantial association between the actions and lifestyle of the person and the decisions that one makes [related to his health.1 The study showed that certain people may benefit from coronary heart disease, whereas others may not. Since others neglect fitness, uncontrolled diet, weight, family background and eventually do not have connections at a reasonable time to health care facilities.

Coronary heart disease is a disease that causes most deaths in the region, based on studies done by the National Institute of Health in Merced Country, California. Merced is ranked 46th in the amount of casualties used by coronary heart failure in comparison to quantitative statistics. The mortality rate in the years 2006-210 is dependent on age. 25 fatalities are induced by coronary heart failure per 110,000 of the population. In comparison, 16,000 persons in Merced County alone have been hospitalised with coronary heart disease, which is 9% of Merced County’s overall population. In comparison, obesity is one of the causes of coronary heart disease, and 29 percent of the overall population of Merced County is also rated large. Which shows that the rise in mortality rates triggered by coronary heart disease is more probable.2

Social Determinants of Coronary Heart Disease


Security of the job is likely to boost the well-being of an individual, because of the daily commitment, as well as the rewards that the company’s employment.1 On the other hand, unemployment amongst the citizens of any given country will increase the level of stress, which will increase the rate of illness and premature deaths. Health issues related to unemployment that is, both psychological and financial constraints. All will have negative results on the health of an individual more, so the mental and one also is at a higher risk of contracting heart disease more so coronary heart disease.3

Work Stress

Work stress is one of the important determinants of CHD among the working-age group. That is mediated via indirect effects on health behaviors and direct impact on neuroendocrine stress pathways. Exposures included job pressures and, on the other hand, behavioral risk factors were included in outcomes. 7


Lower socioeconomic status among the citizens of Merced is one of the sociaeconomic determinants of coronary heart disease. In reference to the above, persons living below the poverty level are unlikely to provide access to sufficient medicine that would enable early disease identification. 2


Addiction is another social determinant of coronary heart disease. Individuals who have resorted to alcohol, cigarettes and other substances could experience a lot from the consequences of the drugs in this regard. Addiction to the drugs is a social determinant of coronary heart disease in the sense that, the use of various types of drugs is highly influenced by the wider social setting.3 Therefore, the government should ensure that it has policies to control the availability and the consumption rate of the respective drug cutting down the incidences of people suffering from coronary heart diseases. In addition, a detailed drug policy supported by an adequate framework dealing with economic policy ought to be adhered to by all.

Low Social Support

Lack of support from the family members towards an individual suffering from coronary heart disease can torture somebody psychologically, therefore increasing the intensity of the disease in the body of a person. 4

 Poor Nutrition

Unbalanced diet amongst individuals will also increase the chances of one suffering from the disease. for the body will not be getting the required food that will give the room for sufficient flow and supply of blood to all parts of the body.  An individual will be weak can, therefore, can easily be attacked any disease more so the coronary heart disease.


Poverty is another social determinant of coronary heart disease, because individuals who are well off can seek adequate medical attention in time. therefore, controling further effects of coronary heart disease. On the other hand, for individuals who are rated to be below the poverty line that is they are not able to attain adequate medication in time. Alternatively, sought medical attention at an early stage, before the state of their body become worse. Also, they are likely to be swallowed by the disease because the lack adequate finances maintain their health status.7

Health Policy

These are policies laid down by the government of any given country, in order to control the operations of health institutions, as well as the health of an individual. In relation to the above, the government sets rules or the policies that prohibit the consumption of any substance that causes the coronary heart disease. Therefore, health systems in any given country form the social determinants of coronary heart disease. 5 It’s the social responsibility of an individual to ensure that one strictly adheres to the laid rules and regulations that govern health issues of any given country. It is, therefore, responsibility of members to participate in ensuring that the health policy, the procedure is followed to the letter in order to cut down the possible cause of coronary heart disease. 


Smoking is a contributor of almost 90% of the entire heart diseases. Therefore, smoking can be termed as a social determinant of coronary disease. The habit of smoking is highly conducted in a social set up, and one can be either a direct smoker or a passive smoker. In relation to this, individuals who hung around the smoking zone are likely to encounter the effects of smoke. Their lungs will be affected and the flow system of the blood in the body, causing coronary heart disease. 6


The health of an individual is the primary responsibility of a person. The health of an individual cannot effectively ensure the safety of his head without ensuring the safety of entire environment t is, therefore, the responsibility of a given community at large to ensure that their health issues are suitable. 3 Therefore, health can be one of the social determinants of coronary disease, for it can for ill sanitary conditions within a given environment can easily lead to coronary heart disease.


Lack of exercise can also be another major social determinant of coronary heart disease.  It is because lack of exercise makes the body in action, and might not function very well. On the other hand, active body that is the body, which is always under exercise, have its openings sufficient and will give the room to flow of blood through the body. Adequate blood to the heart will enable the heart to carry out its biological activities effectively, hence minimizing the chances of one suffering from the coronary heart disease. 4


Social circumstances can lead to long-term stress. Issues such as insecurity, social alienation, low self-esteem, and prolonged or ongoing distress may quickly contribute to coronary heart disease, contributing to premature death finally.   In this scenario, it influences both the cardiovascular as well as the immune systems. If an individual feel too tense most frequently, they can become vulnerable to various conditions, including high blood pressure and heart attack. However, government ought to ensure that welfare programs have to be addressed in line to both psychosocial as well as the material needs. Thus helping reduce stress that can lead to coronary heart disease. 6

Social Exclusion

High-quality life automatically does increase the lifespan of an individual. On the other hand, things like; poverty, resentment and hardship, discrimination and social exclusion do cost many lives at an early stage. Because of the social exclusion, an individual can easily suffer from coronary heart disease. It is, therefore, the responsibility of any given government to ensure that its citizens are well protected by the minimum wage legislation, minimum income guarantee, as well as access to various services. In addition, policies governing the public heath should remove all the barriers to social services, healthcare, and affordable housing. For it will minimize the incidences of its citizens suffering coronary heart disease caused by social exclusion.

Early Life

To have a good start in life means to have full support from parents to their young ones. Health impact of early development of an individual, as well as education, lasts ass lifetime.  The foundation of adult’s health is generally set during early childhood stage and before birth. Poor emotional support and slow growth raise the long-term risk of poor physical health, as well as reducing cognitive, physical and slow growth in adults. If an individual is brought into, an environment that is health conscious will reduce the chances of a person suffering from many other diseases. On the other side, infants who are abused at an early level will be impacted more by coronary heart disease than by chronic diseases at one point. 4

Defining The Condition and Hypothesis

Condition is a point or state in which an individual is. For instate someone who suffers from coronary heart disease. Hypothesis, on the other side, is a tentative statement that talks about the correlation between two or more factors that the investigator plans to operate on them. In other words, it is a testable prediction in line with the expectation of your study or research. Researchers do come up with the hypothesis of a given particular theory, or they can build it basing on the previous research.  

The Ongoing Interventions Addressed about Coronary Heart Disease

The government of Merced County has in place measures to ensure that in one way reduce the deaths caused by coronary heart disease. Among the services offered include community service and support. In line with hospitalization,  the government reduced the number of its citizens hospitalized that had accrued for 130 days, that’s 18% as compared the previous year. Among the measures taken by the government include introducing juvenile behavioral health court programs that will ensure that individuals do not harm their health by consuming what has en prohibited. Moreover, the government also provided that it properly trains its medical practitioners on how to control coronary heart disease.5


The research on coronary heart disease had a lot of downfalls; first, the resources for studying coronary heart disease were carried out by the secondary resources like the journal article and the website. All that explained data from primary and secondary data. Secondly, there was not readily accessible to the readily available quantitative data.

Larger Significance

The research will help the people as well as the government of Merced county on how to control the deaths that are caused by coronary heart disease. Moreover, the study also recommends on the possible activities that an individual ought to put into practice in order to have control over his health. In addition, the study will also help the government of the Merced county in its budgeting process.  It will have the exact figures of individuals suffering from coronary heart disease, hence reduces cases of financial shortfalls in the county. 1

Compared to California and the US, the socioeconomic determinants of the disease in Merced County. Social determinants in the three countries are related in one way or the other. For instance, work stress. It is a determinant factor of coronary disease in both the three countries. In Merced, work has both negative and positive impacts to the health of individuals.  The government of the two countries, both tries to ensure that the working conditions for their citizens are favorable and not stressful. By doing, the government ensures that stressed up in that they can end up suffering from coronary heart disease.

US, Merced and California citizens try to ensure that they secure employment in order to avoid economic constraints that might cause diseases like heart attack and coronary heart diseases.  In addition, the government of the three countries ensures that it provides employment opportunities to its citizens in order to control as well prevent the increasing incidences of coronary diseases.

Addiction is another social determinant of coronary heart disease that the three countries are putting much concern on. The three countries are ensuring that it puts in place policies that will control the act of excessive consumption of drugs. Both countries are trying to ensure that it adequately addresses the side effects of consumption of alcohol, as well as smoking. Countries are also ensuring that they properly equip their health centers to be able handle the rising cases of coronary heart diseases. In addition, all countries are ensuring that they have enough health systems across the entire country in order to control the increasing rate of coronary heart disease. Furthermore, all the above countries have ensured that they have adequate resources and personnel in order ensure that it prevents increasing coronary diseases in their countries. The respective countries also ensure that it provides proper medication to its employees in order to reduce the death rates. Comparison of health outcomes related to the problem.

Health out of any state or country is to ensure citizens are protected against dangerous diseases. Merced suffered financial restrictions, like every other country, to take proper care of its people against coronary heart disease. 4

In Merced City, the ongoing initiatives or services that treat this health condition.Training by medical professionals regarding having to cope more with coronary heart failure than with health conditions. In addition, Merced County has put programs in place in order to reduce and prevent coronary heart disease. Leadership of the nation maintains that its residents are well informed in compliance with health concerns. Exercise is also another factor that is emphasized to make sure that  the health of its citizens is properly controlled. Laying down policies that protect consumption of drugs is also another sector that is highly addressed in order for the citizens of the country to avoid excessive consumption of alcohol and enhance having a healthy nation. A study was carried out to help better understanding of the issue in Merced County, using both qualitative and quantitative data gathering methods. It should concentrate on unearthing the prevalence of residents with coronary disease.

  • Coronary Artery Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Last updated May 9, 2014. Accessed September 24, 2014. 
  • Heart Disease and Stroke. Healthy People 2020. Last updated September 24, 2014. Accessed September 24, 2014. 
  • County Health Status Profiles. California Department of Public Health. Accessed October 08, 2014.
  • Department of Public Health. Merced County of California. Accessed October 08, 2014.
  • AskCHIS. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. Accessed October 08, 2014.
  • Gulliksson M, Burell G, et al. Psychosocial factors during the first year after a coronary heart disease event in cases and referents. Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Health Care Project (SUPRIM). BMC Cardiovascular Disorders [serial online]. 2007; 36(7). Available at: Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Lazzarino A, Hamer M, et al. Low Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Distress as Synergistic Predictors of Mortality from Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2013; 75(3):311–316. Doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182898e6d.
  • Pabayo, Roman. Income Inequality between American States and the Risk for Coronary Heart Disease. The 20th IEA World Congress of Epidemiology [serial online]. 2014. Available at: WCE. Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Richardson S, Shaffer J, et al. Meta-analysis of Perceived Stress and its Association with Incident Coronary Heart Disease. American Journal of Cardiology [serial online]. 2012; 110(12):1711-1716. Available at: (12)01929-7/pdf. Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Nabi H, Shipley M, et al. Effects of depressive symptoms and coronary heart disease and their
  • Interactive associations on mortality in middle-aged adults: the Whitehall II cohort study. PubMed Central [serial online]. 2010; 96(20):1645–1650. Available at: Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Nabi H, Kivimäki M, et al. Increased risk of coronary heart disease among individuals reporting adverse impact of stress on their health: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. PubMed Central [serial online]. 2013; 34(34):2697–2705. Available at: Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Gillespie C, Wigington, C, et al. Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Deaths — United States, 2009. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC [serial online]. 2013; 62(03); 157-160. Available at: Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Heart Disease and Stroke. Healthy People 2020. Available at: Last updated September 24, 2014. Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Health wise Staff. Depression and Coronary Artery Disease. Kaiser Permanente. Available at:!ut/p/a0/FchBDoIwEAXQE5EvYSFx5xmI0XZDxmHCNLbTxkwg3F5ZvoeIF6LRllbyVI3y34GruZjfVCi7dmJ8cK5NlkR4IiK2L62FEKx2TKxyHvvRBOHzPqF7WhB07_vhMl4xic2PCa2UcSjz_Qc8o8zm. Last updated April 6, 2012. Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Available at: Last updated: February 1, 2011. Accessed October 22, 2014.
  • Saban K, Mathews H, et al. Epigenetics and Social Context: Implications for Disparity in Cardiovascular Disease. PubMed Central [serial online]. 2014; 5(5):346–355. Available at: Accessed October 22, 2014.