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Impact of American Welfare Program on Poverty Reduction

Impact of American Welfare Program on Poverty Reduction
  1. Introduction

Nearly $1 trillion of the annual federal budget is being allocated to the 126 federal welfare programs, which were intended to alleviate poverty in America (Tanner 2). Most of the welfare programs involve means testing, where low income status is the broad criterion for eligibility (2). The rest of the welfare programs target recipients in impoverished communities or specific disadvantaged groups, including single mothers and migrant workers (2). In the aftermath of the financial crisis, welfare eligibility was relaxed to expand the coverage of welfare programs (8). Use of categorical eligibility gave the states flexibility qualifying entire families for welfare benefits without the recipients going through individual eligibility screening (8). Even so, the poverty level remains at 16%, to indicate that welfare efforts appear to have no significant impact on poverty(8). In this context, the nil impact of welfare programs on poverty reduction can be explained by the notion that the American welfare program encourages abuse and entitlement. As such, the American welfare program prevents conditions that secure genuine poverty reduction. The discussion posits 10 supporting arguments.

Impact of American Welfare Program on Poverty Reduction

  1. Supporting Arguments

 The current welfare program encourages abuse and entitlement by neglecting empowerment. The debate over welfare dependence pits the liberal with the conservative perspective. “Liberals claim that social conditions do not permit the poor to work while the conservatives do not” (Mead 348). As such, the liberal thinking advocates welfare expansion in contrast with the conservative advocacy of welfare contraction. While “conservative arguments and rhetoric, that were in the margin of the political debate in the early 1980s, have been naturalized in the mainstream discussion on welfare and poverty in the US” (De Goede 317), current practice is leaning towards the liberal perspective.  Welfare expansion means more funds but the system reinforces dependence. In pursuing policies on social welfare, addressing people’s ability for self-help is ignored. “Government debates tend to be abstract and impersonal arguments about justice or fairness among citizens, in which poor people’s ability to “get ahead” is taken for granted” (Mead 348). When social welfare acts as a buffer for low income families without being linked to empowerment, this encourages dependent attitudes that breed abuse.  

The welfare program in the U.S. encourages abuse and entitlement by altering the resilient attitude of vulnerable groups. “Members of vulnerable populations have often displayed remarkable resilience and ingenuity in addressing their own needs” (Jansson 5). In low income communities, informal support systems are usually in place. Neighbors and church members help each other. For some groups, demand for welfare services is even lower. “Foreigners have lower health expenditures than native-born Americans and contribute more to the economy, both in productivity and taxes, than the public service they may receive” (Viladrich 825). When welfare programs broadly target certain groups without considering particular needs for purposes of determining eligibility, the attitude of resilience can shift to dependence. “In a welfare state context, multiculturalism may not be beneficial for immigrants at all, because it may lead to dependence on welfare-state arrangements and thereby to social and economic marginalization” (Koopmans 2). Dependence can lead to abuse.  

The American welfare program encourages abuse and entitlement in not addressing social barriers to employment. Welfare recipients commonly face “low or few job skills, low educational attainment, lack of jobs in the community, and problems with transportation as barriers to finding and sustaining employment” (Blalock, Tiller, and Monroe 134). Welfare is only one component of the poverty alleviation formula. These barriers have to be addressed simultaneously in order to improve the condition of marginalized groups. However, “for some families, individual and structural barriers to success might prove overpowering” (Blalock, Tiller, and Monroe 129). In one study, “findings suggest that some welfare recipients will not be able to support their families through employment. For these families, a network of permanent services should be provided” (Taylor and Barusch 183). When the American welfare program works separately from other social policies, the program serves as a buffer for groups that are barred from finding employment but without working on ways of removing these barriers. Welfare recipients are tied to their dependent status, which encourages entitlement.

The American welfare program encourages abuse and entitlement because of its poor commitment to helping people get work. The priority of the American welfare program is the provision of benefits to people who belong to the low income groups or people who have no work. Welfare benefits are distributed to households based on the broad eligibility criteria of inclusion in low income group. “Means-tested programs […] pay benefits to those who first demonstrate limited economic resources. Entitlement has nothing to do with whether claimants have had prior earnings or have ever paid taxes” (Thompson 6). By not considering prior employment as criterion for eligibility, there is no incentive for people to find employment, especially when income opportunities are limited. People who qualify for welfare programs that are broad in scope benefit by not finding work. In a study of single parents, the results showed that “net compensation rate in unemployment has a significant impact on women’s propensity to leave the labor force” (Pedersen and Smith 271).

The American welfare program also encourages abuse and entitlement through disincentives for people to improve their income conditions.  “Social welfare can discourage work effort […] thereby creating a dependence on the welfare state” (Sefton, Van De Ven, and Weale 556). Even if policy makers did not intend to discourage people from targeting better income opportunities, the welfare program can have this effect. In some forms of welfare, the same rate of benefit is received regardless of the difference in income level.

“In health insurance and flat pension benefit programs, higher-wage workers contribute more than lower-wage workers but everyone receives the same benefits. In most public pension programs, […] the lower wage workers tend to get back proportionately more than the higher-wage workers, sometimes much more.” (Thompson 5)

These scenarios could discourage people from working harder to raise their income level. Complacence towards improving one’s income level by working harder reflects welfare dependence. 

Abuse and entitlement can also result from ignoring education for welfare recipients. “Majority of the welfare programs is means-tested” (Tanner 2), which means that the broad eligibility criterion of low-income status is the controlling consideration. Welfare recipients are not required to achieve minimum levels of education. There are also no incentives for recipients to go back to school, especially to pursue higher education. At the same time, limited support makes it hard for recipients to pursue higher education even if they wanted to go to college. “Welfare-to-work policies and practices create a nexus of obstacles that include active discouragement and harassment of their post-secondary educational aspirations.” (Polakaw 11) In the case of single mothers, welfare support is hardly sufficient so that higher education is not an option. “Harsh and discriminatory public policies restrict their educational opportunities and threaten their autonomy, their children, and their economic self-sufficiency” (Polakaw 12). Without an educational component, the American welfare program pegs welfare recipients to their position, leaving them dependent on welfare entitlement.

The American welfare program encourages abuse and entitlement when racial inequality influences welfare distribution. “America has failed to create welfare state that would treat blacks and whites alike. The problem of race and the failure to create broadly inclusive social policies have become intertwined” (Brown 3). African Americans and minority groups have been identified as the primary targets of welfare programs because higher poverty rates exist for these groups. Racial inequality emerges when welfare does not reflect this reality. The trend in welfare is that:

“States with a 25% African American proportion are predicted to give families of three 31% more money than in states with a 75% African American proportion, a difference of over $100. […]. As the proportion of Latino increase by one standard deviation […] the states are expected to decrease benefits by 26%.” (Fellowes and Rowe 368)

When race becomes an issue in entitlement, eligibility becomes an issue of majority vs. minority instead of the people most in need. This situation would likely lead to abuse by people who believe they are entitled by reason of race and abuse by people who think minority groups are getting too much support.

Lapses in the management of the American welfare program allow abuse. Limited people working on many cases can lead to lapses when it comes to checking the eligibility of applicants. “It was often difficult to check on the bona fides of applicants or to monitor recipients for changed circumstances.” (Prenzler 1) As such, “states with more slack resources allow more clients to continue receiving benefits while not meeting traditional work requirements”. (Fellowes and Rowe 368) At the same time, personal and emotional factors could also lead to lapses that create opportunities for abuse. “State policymakers react compassionately to growing need, by showing more flexibility to welfare clients.” (Fellowes and Rowe 368)

The American welfare program also encourages abuse when the penalty is less than the expected benefits.  “An amoral utility maximizer, who is ineligible to participate in the program, but whose expected penalty for dishonest claiming is low enough to induce participation, might participate in the program more intensively.” (Yaniv 447) The value of expected benefits can be measured by the amount attributed to fraud. “Health care fraud and abuse reportedly accounted for 10 percent of total spending on health care, or about $120 billion per year” (Hyman 531). As such, the possibility of receiving welfare support regularly with a small chance of detection makes a recipe for abuse.

The American welfare program also encourages abuse when the rules do not effectively detect fraud for purposes of prosecution and deterrence. Many cases of fraud do not actually involve criminal intent. Many cases of fraud “arises as a result of errors and misunderstandings made in the context of an astoundingly complex bureaucratic system composed of some 800 rules” (Mosher and Hermer 18). At the same time, the focus of anti-fraud rules is towards reporting of cases. Reporting is only one aspect of fraud deterrence. Real cases of fraud can be deterred if “less effort were directed towards the enforcement of reporting regulations and work requirements in welfare programs, and more resources shifted to enforcing eligibility conditions and combating dishonest claiming” (Yaniv 435). By simplifying the rules on eligibility evaluations, information disclosure and application processing, the seemingly fraudulent activities that were the result of errors and misunderstandings can be eliminated. This strengthens the prosecution process to penalize those who commit welfare fraud and deter other people from committing the same act.

  1. Conclusion

The discussion explored the notion that the American welfare program encourages abuse and entitlement in the context of failed efforts to lower poverty levels amidst welfare expansion. Based on the supporting arguments, the American welfare program is not perfect. It is subject to abuse and entitlement by unintentionally encouraging dependence and counter-productive attitudes towards employment and higher education. The racial inequality in welfare distribution, poor management of the welfare system, the low penalty relative to expected benefits of fraud, and the weak detection and deterrence effect of anti-fraud rules also facilitate abuse and entitlement. These factors account for the failure of the expanded welfare program to reduce poverty levels. As such, the American welfare program can give rise to conditions that secure genuine poverty reduction when welfare improvements target the factors that encourage abuse and entitlement.

Works Cited
  • Blalock, Lydia, Vicky Tiller, and Pamela Monroe. ““They get you out of courage:” Persistent Deep Poverty among Former Welfare-Reliant Women.” Family Relations 53.2 (2004): 127-137.
  • Brown, Michael. Race, Money, and the American Welfare State. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.
  • De Goede, Marieke. “Ideology in the US Welfare Debate: Neo-Liberal Representations of Poverty.” Discourse Society 7.3 (1996): 317-357.
  • Fellowes, Matthew, and Gretchen Rowe. “Politics and the New American Welfare State.” American Journal of Political Science 48.2 (2004): 362-373.
  • Hyman, David. “Health Care Fraud and Abuse: Market Change, Social Norms, and the Trust “Reposed in the Workmen”.” The Journal of Legal Studies 30.S2 (2001): 531-567.
  • Jansson, Bruce. The Reluctant Welfare State: Engaging History to Advance Social Work Practice in Contemporary Society. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, 2009.
  • Koopmans, Ruud. “Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: Immigrant Integration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State in Cross-National Perspective.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36.1 (2010): 1-26.
  • Mead, Lawrence. “Welfare Politics in Congress.” Political Science & Politics 44.4 (2011): 345-356.
  • Mosher, Janet, and Joe Hermer. “Welfare Fraud: The Constitution of Social Assistance as a Crime.” Constructing Crime: Contemporary Processes of Criminalization. Eds. Janet Mosher, and Joan Brockman. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 2010. 17-52.
  • Pedersen, Peder, and Nina Smith. “Unemployment Traps: Do Financial Disincentives Matter?.” European Sociological Review 18.3 (2002): 271-288.
  • Polakow, Valerie. Shut Out: Low Income Mothers and Higher Education in Post-Welfare America. Albany, New York: SUNY Press, 2004.
  • Prenzler, Tim. “Detecting and Preventing Welfare Fraud.” Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice 2011.418 (2011): 1-6.
  • Sefton, James, Justin Van De Ven, and Martin Weale. “Means Testing Retirement Benefits: Fostering Equity or Discouraging Savings.” The Economic Journal 118.528 (2008): 556-590.
  • Tanner, Michael. The American Welfare State: How We Spend Nearly $1 Trillion a Year Fighting Poverty – and Fail. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute.
  • Taylor, Mary Jane, and Barusch, Amanda. “Personal, Family, and Multiple Barriers of Long-Term Welfare Recipients.” Social Work 49.2 (2004): 175-183.
  • Thompson, Lawrence. “The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Social Welfare Strategies.” Social Security Bulletin 57.3 (1994): 3-11.
  • Viladrich, Anahi. “Beyond Welfare Reform: Reframing Undocumented Immigrants’ Entitlement to Health Care in the United States, A Critical Review.” Social Science & Medicine 74 (2012): 822-829.
  • Yaniv, Gideon. “Welfare Fraud and Welfare Stigma.” Journal of Economic Psychology 18.4 (1997): 435-451.

Youth Obesity as a Growing Health Concern

Youth Obesity as a Growing Health Concern


In today’s population, especially in the Western world, childhood obesity is becoming a potential health problem. Obesity in children is on the rise, thanks to a western lifestyle that promotes poor eating patterns and sedentary behavior. Obesity is a medical disorder characterized by an abundance of body fat or adipose tissue. Obesity may be caused by a number of causes, including sedentary diets and unhealthy dietary patterns, as well as hereditary and psychological factors. If a person’s Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 30, he or she is considered obese. This epidemic often affects girls, resulting in a health crisis known as childhood obesity. One of the most serious consequences of childhood obesity is that it is more likely to contribute to adulthood obesity in young people. According to statistical projections, almost two-thirds of Australian adults would be obese by 2025 if the present incidence rate of childhood obesity persists. This paper would focus on youth obesity as a growing health concern. This will also provide a proposal for a strategy to solve this life-threatening health issue.

Youth Obesity as a Growing Health Concern

An Overview of the Issue

Childhood obesity was selected as the evolving health concern for this final paper because it is a subject that is highly important in today’s culture. For example, according to new studies, obesity is now one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States (Lacey, 2010). Obesity in children has no universally agreed meaning.

The fact that this problem is chronic is a huge burden. Since this health crisis begins in childhood, children must deal with the repercussions for the rest of their lives. Clearly, one of the main problems of youth obesity is the high cost of treatment. Any child does not receive adequate care as a result of this dilemma. Obesity, doctors warn, will contribute to a slew of other serious health issues, including coronary disease, asthma, insomnia, and cancer. Obese kids are often more likely to have such health conditions including liver failure, early puberty, eating disorders, skin diseases, asthma, and respiratory problems. Governments and other public policy agencies are being pushed to invest vast sums in order to meet the rising health-care expenses associated with youth obesity. To offer you an example, the US invests $147 billion a year on obesity-related health issues, and according to a new McKinsey survey (as quoted in Korbe, 2012), this number could grow to $320 billion per year by 2018. Obese adolescents, according to research, are especially prone to mental and psychological issues. Obese girls, for example, find it incredibly challenging to live a regular life. They have a tendency to feel inferior to others, which has an effect on their lives. Children who are obese as children are often teased by their classmates and discriminated against by their families, according to psychologists. These activities clearly have a detrimental effect on children’s emotional wellbeing, since they can develop a feeling of alienation. Obese children are more likely to have poor self-esteem and depression because of this. Obese infants, on the other hand, perform badly mentally as opposed to average children. As a result, the patients of this illness are unable to contribute positively to the nation’s economic development. In other terms, obese children increase a country’s economic pressure. Obesity in children has been related to an elevated mortality risk in adults.

Obesity obviously has the biggest effect on adolescents. To justify, obese adolescents are forced to hold this lifelong health problem for the remainder of their lives. Furthermore, during the past few decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown sharply. According to Han, Lawlor, and Kimm (2010), the incidence rate of childhood obesity has increased or tripled in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Canada, Germany, Brazil, Finland, Chile, Greece, and Japan from the 1970s to the 1990s. According to Han et al. (2010), a large proportion of children in the WHO areas of North America and the Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, the Western Pacific, and Southeast Asia would be overweight or obese in the coming years.

Programme Initiatives

Prevention is the better strategy to deal with this health condition as there is no proved treatment for childhood obesity yet. As children are the audience group most affected by this issue, prevention programs must focus on the family environment. It is clear that a child will be usually with its family when it passes through early growth stages.   

As researchers point out, family lifestyle can be one of the major contributory factors to childhood obesity. Family lifestyle practices such as eating, shopping, and exercise can have a great influence on one’s abnormal body weight problem. In addition, children who are addicted to prolonged television watching and computer usage are most likely to be affected by an excessive accumulation of fat. Finally, refraining from regular physical activities also increases children’s risk of developing childhood obesity. Therefore, a family-based action plan would be extremely potential to regulate this chronic health problem successfully.  

The prevention program planned here particularly focuses on children’s dietary habits and lifestyle culture. As Minelli and Breckon (2009, p. 82) report, lifestyle change programs are intended to produce healthy lifestyle changes among the targeted audience group. Furthermore, the program will try to provide children with good health education. In addition, the program requires active involvement of other family members, specifically parents. As demonstrated in a YouTube video, encouraging more fruits and vegetable ingestion and limitation of stationary activities like prolonged TV watching also constitute the program (“Saying No to Fattening Foods”). This program would be a comprehensive framework that suggests a healthy lifestyle culture for children. Once the child learns good dietary patterns and other healthy habits from the family, it is likely to continue this lifestyle for the rest of their life. Since family is a child’s first learning environment, the proposed family-based prevention program can be very effective to address the growing childhood obesity issues.     

The main goal of this health program is to grow awareness of childhood obesity among people. Generally, children spend a significant amount of their time in the family, and, hence, it is important to keep parents and other grown up family members informed of the complications of this long term health condition. It is a fact that majority of the modern people are not actually concerned about the implications of their eating habits.  Undoubtedly, children and their caregivers would shift to a healthy lifestyle culture once they realized the dreadful impacts of childhood obesity. Another objective of this program is to enlighten people about how to fight this health issue. More precisely, this program aims to provide the audience group with a good lifestyle habit that would minimize the chances of an excessive body fat accumulation.  The ultimate aim of the planned prevention program is to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity in the country, and, hence, to help the government to reduce costs associated with prevention and intervention. In a long term perspective, this response program aims to improve the overall health of the chosen audience group.

Providing peer education for children and their parents is the primary element of the prevention program. Better awareness on the issue is necessary to obtain active people involvement in the program. For instance, daily physical activities for at least 60 minutes would help people keep obesity/overweight problems under control. This information may persuade people to include such a healthy lifestyle practice in their daily life. This program depends on social marketing techniques to promote the responsive action plan. According to Stellefson and Eddy (2008), social marketing is an effective strategy to market health education. For instance, it is better to organize TV and online campaigns to make people aware of the growing prevalence of childhood obesity in the country. In addition, community based workshop programs can be organized for families as a part of the prevention program. It also includes counseling programs for obese children in order to give them emotional or psychological support. The proposed program strongly suggests concerned healthcare authorities should check children for overweight/obesity at least once a year.  

Attribution theory is one of the major health behavior theories used in the proposed childhood obesity program. The theory was first proposed by Fritz Heider. According to this theory, people tend to provide a causal explanation for events in their daily life if they are unexpected and have personal relevance. Based on this theory, people will try to seek a casual explanation for a serious illness. Therefore, if people realize the childhood obesity is a serious health condition, they will certainly seek a causal explanation which is really beneficial to keep them informed of different prevention strategies. The planned action framework is also supported by the health belief model (HBM). The HBM states that if an individual is vulnerable to a severe condition, this situation will act as a cue to take action so as to spark change. Hence, if people understand that they are vulnerable to obesity, they will certainly take immediate actions to bring necessary changes to their current lifestyle.     

Program Implementation and Evaluation

First, it is essential to convince parents about the necessity of restricting the amount of sugar-laden soft drinks and calorie-rich food items consumed by children. In addition, children must be advised to take homely food instead of fast food, which contain excess amount of fat (“Saying No to Afternoon Sweets”). Guidance must be given to children on the essentiality of following a proper time schedule for eating. However, in order to implement this prevention program effectively in the family environment, first parents and other grown up members must be ready to shift to a healthy lifestyle culture. Hence, the suggested prevention program will pay particular attention to organizing workshop classes for parents.   

Active involvement of community health organizations is vital to evaluate the outcomes of this prevention program. Those social interest organizations have to periodically examine children in their area to assess the effectiveness of the program implemented. In addition, it is better to assess the number of childhood obesity cases reported in health institutions after the implementation of the program.

Influence of the Program on Overall Health of the Community

Surely, this program can have significant influences on the health of the target audience as well as overall health of the community. Since this program makes children and their parents aware of the complications of childhood obesity, the audience group and the overall community would be concerned about the seriousness of this health condition. According to the attribution theory and the health belief model, people would seek casual explanation for their life events and accept a shift in lifestyle once they realize that they are affected by a serious health problem. Adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors by the audience group for a lifetime is expected to be one of the major achievements of the prevention program designed. Through counseling techniques, this program can promote a behavior modification in obese children. When obese children feel a sense of belonging and maintain a positive approach towards the life, it would be easy for one to manage their health condition. This prevention program would accomplish a range of societal as well as environmental changes which are vital to address the issue of childhood obesity. Evidently, when the frequency of childhood obesity is reduced in the society, this, in turn, would minimize the risk of adulthood obesity. The ultimate result is that the overall health of the community is thus improved.   


From the above discussion, it is clear that childhood obesity is growing to be a major health issue in developed countries, particularly Australia and the United States. Children constitute the audience group most affected by this health problem. Its chronic nature, dreadful complications like heart diseases, diabetes, and cancer, and high cost of care intensify the challenges of this health condition. In order to tackle this problem, a family-based prevention program is proposed. Peer education, social marketing, community-based workshops, and counseling programs are some of the major elements of this prevention framework. Active involvement of community health organizations is necessary to ensure the success of this program and to improve the overall health of the community thereby.

  • Han, J. C., Lawlor, D. A. & Kimm, S. Y. S. (2010). Childhood obesity. American Medical Network. Retrieved from http://www.health.am/weightloss/childhood-obesity/
  • Korbe, T. (2012). Democratic congressman: The federal government has to fight childhood obesity for the budget. Hotair, March 21. Retrieved from http://hotair.com/archives/2012/03/21/democratic-congressman-the-federal-government-has-to-fight-childhood-obesity-for-the-budget/
  • Lacey, H. (2010). Research confirms obesity is now leading cause of preventable death in U.S. examiner.com. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/article/research-confirms-obesity-is-now-leading-cause-of-preventable-death-u-s
  • Minelli, J. J., & Breckon, D. (2009). Community health education: Settings, roles, and skills. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
  • Saying No to Fattening Foods (What’s Harder #1). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VX0Wz59YcDY&feature=related
  • Stellefson, M & Eddy, J. M. (2008). Health education and marketing processes: 2 related methods for achieving health behavior change. Am J Health Behav, 32 (5): 488-496.
  • Saying No to Afternoon Sweets (What’s Harder #2). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s7kXj-p1okQ&NR=1&feature=endscreen

Advantages and Disadvantages Dulhasti Power Plant

Advantages and Disadvantages Dulhasti Power Plant
  1. Explain The Challenge Of Producing Accurate Cost Estimation When Working In Harsh Geographical Conditions.

It is very difficult for construction firms to carry out accurate cost estimation when working in harsh geographical conditions. From the given case study, it is clear that adverse geographical conditions caused the French consortium to experience project cost overruns and extensive period to complete the work. Since the point of construction was a disputed border region, it was greatly prone to terrorist attacks by Pakistan nationalist groups. Therefore, allotting additional funds for addressing the security concerns of the hydroelectric project was necessary. Furthermore, the chosen area lacked significant infrastructure growth. More specifically, the area lacked a well-developed logistics network, which included roads and rail lines. As a result, nearly all building products, including raw materials and workers, had to be shipped by air. Another problem was the construction site’s location, which was far from larger cities and metropolitan centers. As a result, building companies had to pay more on food and lodging for their employees. Furthermore, the French consortium’s transportation expenses were greatly raised due to its lack of access to larger cities. This condition caused a pause in the project’s completion because the organization had to wait a long time for raw materials. Obviously, any delays in the project’s execution would result in cost increases. The project’s cost increase was most definitely affected by the severe climatic conditions in this mountainous terrain.

Also extremely seasoned building companies cannot reliably estimate costs while operating in harsh geographical conditions due to unexpected contingencies, according to management experts. Some areas are particularly vulnerable to natural disasters such as hurricanes, flooding, drones, and wildfires. Construction companies are more prone to face cost overruns while operating in certain poor geographical areas. Such risks not only stymie project progress, but also damage building firms’ capital, such as materials, machinery, and labor. Issues such as landslides or ice roads may cause transportation to be disrupted, forcing building companies to briefly halt their operation. Undoubtedly, such activities will push building companies to make unanticipated financial expenditures. Construction companies are required to raise contingency funding in order to manage contingency costs, particularly while working on fixed-price contracts. For a typical construction project requires 10% contingency financing, it is unclear how much may be set aside for contingency funding while operating on a construction project in a harsh geographical setting.  Generally, it is safer for construction firms to rely on conservative cost estimates than making too many risky assumptions while dealing with those development projects.

Advantages and Disadvantages Dulhasti Power Plant

  1. The Original Bidding Process Favored The Lowest Project Construction Bids Using A “Fixed Price” Contract.  What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages To The Indian Government From Using This Type Of Bidding Process?  How Did It Contribute To Gross Underbids And Successive Cost Escalations?

According to Ayers, fixed price contract reflects the idea that “for a specific sum of money, the bidder will agree to do a specific amount of work” (p.148). The fixed price contract offers a set of potential advantages to the Indian government, particularly while developing projects in harsh geographical conditions. The Indian government benefits greatly from predictability by utilizing this method of bidding mechanism. More clearly, the fixed price contract assists the government not to be concerned regarding future price increases or other market abnormalities. Most notably, this type of bidding process would greatly benefit the government while performing construction projects in geographical areas which are vulnerable to natural contingencies, terrorist attacks, and other unforeseen issues. For instance, the fixed price contract evidently assisted the Indian government to save millions of dollars on the Dulhasti Power project. Although the project was awarded to the French consortium at a price of $50 billion, the total project cost increased 25 times its initial cost by the completion of the power plant construction (Case study). The project took a long time (20 years) to complete due its fits and starts resulting from harsh geographical conditions (Case study). However, the French consortium bore a significant percent of cost escalations before leaving the project with the consent of the Indian government. If the Indian government had not adopted the fixed price contract method, it would have incurred huge additional expenses. Another advantage of this type of bidding process is that it is beneficial for the government to take advantages of the stiff competition among construction firms and thereby ensure lowest possible price. Under the fixed price contract, the government can determine what it should spend to get the particular project completed within a specified period of time. Since the slow work would cost the construction firm more money, the firm will certainly try its best to complete the project at the earliest. Likewise, the fixed price contract would assist the Indian government to get rid of administration costs in terms of supervision and control. To be specific, the bidding strategy greatly assisted the Indian government to construct the Dulhasti power plant without incurring huge losses in spite of harsh geographical conditions including poor logistic network.

Under the fixed price contract, the Indian government might have enjoyed minimum power over the performance of the contract. More clearly, making changes to the project is much difficult; instead, it is particularly essential to proceed exactly according to the plan under the fixed price contract. As the case study clearly indicates, the lack of flexibility can be attributed to the long delay involved in the completion of the Dulhasti power plant. Another major disadvantage of fixed price contract is that, the quality of the project development may be affected under this type of bidding. Evidently, the bidder would try to reduce expenses in every way possible and this practice is more likely to affect the quality of the work done. Therefore, the fixed price contract may thwart the performance of the project completed in a desired way.

Works Cited
  • Ayers, Chesley. Specifications for architecture, engineering, and construction. US: McGraw-Hill, 1984. Print.
  • The Dulhasti Power Plant. Case Study.

Pembrey Airport Environmental Impact Assessment

Pembrey Airport Environmental Impact Assessment

Table of Contents


            Environment under which the new creator would not jeopardize potential generations’ opportunity to enjoy the same opportunities. This study includes undertaking an environmental impact assessment (EIA) on the possible improvements or expansion of Pembrey Airport, with an emphasis on the potential for fires in the current freight and customs warehouse, as well as on the runway (Morgan, 2000). The study includes, among other items, the project summary, the site’s current environmental condition, the possible positive and negative environmental effects, mitigating strategies, and environmental regulations pertaining to fire safety in such projects.

The proposal was analyzed by the EIA team using a number of tools, including field assessments, questionnaires, and interviews with neighbors. There was also a study of current literature on regulatory and other criteria (Wood, 2003). Various Acts and Laws were analyzed during the analysis to collect knowledge that would assist in the training of EMPs. The following baseline data are obtained from the planned project’s assessment:

  • The project is being built in a well-known commercial area.
  • Following public consultations, it was discovered that the scheme has no major detrimental environmental consequences.
  • Since the project
  • entails the management of socioeconomic consequences, a comprehensive EMP is needed.
  • The project has tremendous socioeconomic and economic

value, as well as the ability to create jobs.

The Environmental Impact Assessment Study for the planned runway expansion at Pembrey Airport is included in this report. Carmarthenshire County Council, the project’s proponent, appointed an environmental team to perform an EIA review of the new development’s fire danger during the implementation and operating processes. The planned location is close to leisure areas such as the Ffos Las racetrack and the Machynys Championship golf course. Pembrey Airport is 11.8 kilometers north of Llanelli and 17.9 kilometers south of Carmarthen. The facility is used for a variety of uses, including preparation, freight loading and offloading, landings, and take-offs. It’s just a few kilometers from the Royal landing base, but far enough away to be secure. The customer in this situation wished to increase the runway duration to 2400 meters (7.874 ft).

The Air Bus A320 commuter plane, VIP business planes, and horse/race car transporting freighters would all be able to travel as a result of this. Furthermore, the promoter wants the facility to be able to handle huge combat aircraft like the C130, which would be used for both logistics monitoring and preparation. In addition to the runway, the proponent, Carmarthenshire County Council, wants to optimize the facility’s capacity by recommending the creation of a modern airport, customs, and freight facilities. The Welsh government lawmakers are excited regarding the new construction since it would support the Carmarthenshire area and represent both the southern and western sections of Wales. This will boost the aviation industry in Wales and the surrounding areas.

            The operational phase of the project will involve offering spacious and modern freight office spaces and runways among others. Main inputs will be basic services such as electricity, emergency services, degradable and non-degradable goods, etc. Key outputs of the project will include degradable and non-solid wastes from construction materials. This may include plastics, metal chips, and waste electric cables among other materials in fireworks (Morris, 2001). Decommissioning phase will consider restoring the site to its nearest original built status if necessary. The operational phase will employ widely accepted fire hazard strategies such as low/recommended volume of electricity voltages, protective clothing when workers on duty, use of signs to warn workers of dangerous zones, escape openings in case of accidental fires, training staff on disaster preparedness and response strategies, installing and offering appropriate trainings on fire extinguishers within the facility and instalment of fire sensors among others. Project description

This describes all major works associated with power connections in the proposed project.

Power Supply

Incoming Supply:

               Electrical power supply will be derived from the existing local power supply company and networked to the developed areas. Electricity will provide light energy during both implementation and operational phases of the proposed project. The power will also be used to drive the machineries in the newly constructed warehouses and power the digital sensors that will be installed in the new terminals and buildings among other purposes of electricity. The proponent will contract experienced electric firm to conduct all the connection firms to limit chances of electrical accidents.

Power Distribution:

                 Power derived from the closest transformers will be connected to the main electrical switchboard. From the main switchboard power will be distributed to the proposed buildings among other construction areas as indicated in the proposed project. This would be conducted through armored cables run in ducts and vertically through riser ducts in the construction areas. Power will also be distributed horizontally within the suspended ceilings. However, the relevant contracted firms would produce a comprehensive report of their works to enable the proponent make recommendations or adjustments to match the financial budget of the entire project. Furthermore, the proponent or the company will mobilise its internal electrical specialist to supervise all the electrical works in the proposed project.

Power Outlets:

               Power outlets (plug points) will be provided at all the construction sites. These shall derive power from the distribution boards or consumer units. The conduit system for the power outlets shall be heavy gauge PVC type concealed in the building fabric. The wiring will be by PVC cables run in the concealed conduits.

Lighting Installation

         The connections for the lighting installation will consist of PVC insulated/coated cables which run in conduits concealed in the building fabric. Compact fluorescent and down lighters with energy saving lamps will be installed in the circulation areas and washrooms. The public areas will also be provided with energy saving lamps for ceiling mounted, suspended and wall mounted lights.

            Lighting sensors shall also be installed in public areas to switch lights off automatically during long periods of non-occupancy as an energy saving measure. The external areas will be lit by weatherproof lighting (Hirschler, 2002). These shall be either wall or pole mounted to suit their location. Security lighting will be controlled by photocells, which will switch them on and off automatically. There shall also be overridden switches to the photocell units should it be necessary to put the lights on at other times.

Fire Alarm System

           An electrical fire alarm system shall be installed in its control and indicator panel suitably located on the ground floor with a repeater panel in the manager’s and security officer’s offices. The alarm system will be activated in the event of a fire breaking out in any part of the building. The alarm can be raised by an observer breaking glass of the nearest contact or by smoke or heat detector being activated. As a result of activation, fire alarm bells will ring and the location of the fire will be displayed at the control panel on the necessary action to be taken. Smoke detectors will be installed in the passageways, offices and plant rooms (Thompson, 2001). The fire alarm system shall be the addressable system type allowing for the exact location of the fire to be displayed on a monitor. The fire alarm system will also be linked to the security system.

Building/ Runway Management and Security System

         All the building/runway equipment will be connected to a central monitoring system, from where the whole system would be controlled. However, the connections could also be done to the existing control room, depending on its ability to handle more connections. This equipment is made of pumps, fire fighting/metering equipment, automatic water sprinklers in case of accidental fires among others. Considerations will be made for microwave detectors used to switch lights on/off in response to occurrence in the circulation areas. Furthermore, special equipment will be installed to monitor/control the use of natural light when sufficient natural light is available, especially in circulation areas; this would help conserve the energy. A security system comprising of closed circuit television (CCTV) will be provided in management areas to enable security personnel monitor movement within the premises. The security alarm system will include a facility for calling for backup from designated security firms.

Standby Generator

         A standby generator to provide electricity in times of power failure will be installed in the newly constructed sites to boost the existing one. The generator will have an automatic start arrangement for conveniences. The generator shall remain off when normal power is resumed and be ready for the next start when required.

Fire Fighting

        The fire fighting equipment shall comprise of a sprinkler system in the public areas and corridors. Hose reels and portable fire extinguishers will also be provided within the building. The sprinkler system shall be activated by heat being sensed by the sprinkler head, which in its turn sets off the sprinkler pump. The hose reels on being opened will be pressured by a hose reel pump, and the nozzle would then be directed to extinguish the fire. The portable fire extinguishers will be of two types: one for normal fires and one for electric fires. Fire hydrants will also be suitably located around the building.

Pembrey Airport Environmental Impact Assessment

Pembrey Airport Environmental Impact Assessment

Pic. 1. Existing fire fighting measures

Environmental Impacts

Positive Impacts

Creation of Employment

The proposed project will provide a wide range of electrical works in the airport. This will include unskilled labor, consultants and electrical engineers among other specialist. This project would reduce poverty as per the millennium development goals, which regard poverty as serving on a daily budget less than a dollar. Furthermore, the project would ensure that the hired professionals and unskilled labor benefit during construction, operation/maintenance as well decommissioning phases.

Provision of Spacious Runway and Customs Warehouse and Offices

This will enable the facility to expand its operations by handling the Air Bus A320 Passenger aircraft, VIP corporate jets and military aircraft like C130. This would boost the company’s returns among other benefits. More operational spaces like the customs are more likely to increase productivity and the overall company turn out.

Business Booster Recreational Centers

Completion of the proposed project would ensure easy landing and boarding of tourists in the neighboring recreational facilities like Ffos Las racecourse, Jack Nicholas designed and Machynys championship golf course. This would boost their business since more tourists or recreational clients prefer destinations with advanced transport and communication systems.

Improved Disaster Management at the Airport

The installation of advanced fire alarms and fire sensors will limit the chances of fire accidents within the airport in general. The sensors will be installed in both the runway and newly constructed custom warehouse among other facilities. All workers will also be trained on how to use the sensors or alarms and avoid areas with such fires or dangers.

Negative Environmental Impacts

This explains some of the likely negative environmental impacts in all the phases of the project. These impacts will cover both the runway and custom warehouse.

Firebreak Outs

          Accidental fires are likely to occur during the construction and operational phases of the project. This may result from faulty connections, inappropriate materials or components, excess power voltage transmissions, natural disasters like wind breaking electrical components, human ignorance, faulty planes, air buses or jets among other facilities supported by the runways and the head on collisions on the runway among other causes (Morr, 2006). These fires, if not well controlled or managed, may lead to loss of the company resources and even human life. Spillages of planes, jets among massive faulty facilities may spill their fuels on the runway. The volatile or flammable spills may cause fire break-out when sparked by cigarettes, sparks from fractioned metal parts or even sparks from open fires.

  1. Disruption of normal operations in the neighboring recreational facilities.

          Both the construction and operation phases of the project are likely to have some negative implications for the operations in the neighborhood. The runway and customs operations may produce excessive noise beyond recommended decibels; this may cause some sense of discomfort in such areas. Tourists and other clients in the recreational facilities may opt to seek same services in more comfortable destinations. This may see closure of such facilities. Accidental fires may come with the general state of confusions in both the airport and its neighboring businesses.

Disruption in Power Supply

          The construction and the operational phase of the project may lead to disruption of power supply at the airport as a whole and its surroundings. The mains may be switched off to limit chances of electrical accidents during constructions. This may limit surrounding establishes or businesses without standby generators. Furthermore, such disruptions may cause transmission of excess volts in the surrounding lines which may cause accidental fires or damage electrical appliances.

Mitigation Measures to the Negative Impacts

Mitigation Measures to Fire Outbreaks

           The proponent would ensure he contracts experienced firms or individuals to conduct all critical installation works. Such firms should ensure they use the correct installation equipment as per the manufactures’ instructions. Recommended electricity voltages should be labelled on the machineries among other electrical appliances to guide the operators in the airport. Workers should be trained in disaster preparedness and responses to help limit the impacts of accidental fires within the premise. The proponent will ensure the project incorporates installation of working fire extinguishers in strategic corners in the establishment (Ashford, 2001). Furthermore, workers will be trained on the usage of such appliances. Fire detectors should also be installed in strategic positions within the airport. Such sensors should be able to commute responses to the central monitoring centers for appropriate actions to be taken.

Mitigation measures to the disruptions of normal operations in the neighbouring establishments

The proponent should fence the project sites to limit disturbances to the surrounding facilities. Such disturbances may result from noise and vibrations during the installation of electrical appliances and sparks metal works among others. Furthermore, the project should use environmentally friendly materials and coated alloys, which have limited sparks or vibrations. The neighboring establishes should be informed of ongoing works to prepare psychologically. The proponent should invest in sound proof and vibration materials in enclosing the construction site. This would absorb major disturbances to the neighbors.

Disruption of power supply

          The proponent should inform its neighboring establishes on the ongoing works so that they can activate their standby generators in case the power supply is disrupted. Major electrical works should be conducted at night or during weekends when most establishes are closed. The proponent can make a special request to the local electricity distributing company to establish a subsidiary or alternative distribution line when the main lines are switched off while electrical works are underway. The company should also install standby generators to ensure other airport operations are not paralysed by construction works.

Public Participation

           The key findings of the study were obtained from interview sessions by key individuals within the airport and its neighboring establishes. Some committed bodies or individuals were offered questionnaires to air their views, as far as the proposed project is concerned. They both mentioned the beneficial and negative implications of the proposed project. Some of their positive and negative verdicts are discussed above. However, there was no serious comment or negative impact that would hinder the implementation of the proposed project. The proponent committed that it would adhere to the provided environmental plan to ensure all the mitigation measures are observed.

Environmental management plan (EMP)

Impact Mitigation measures Responsible party Estimated Duration Estimated cost($)
Fire outbreaks Installation of fire alarms and sensors

Provide disaster preparedness and response trainings

Proponent/ contractor 12 months 850,000
Disruption of neighboring normal operations Sound and vibrations proof fencing Proponent/contractor 12 months 230,000

Table 1. Some of the areas the proponent will commit to ensure the success of the proposed project.


The above project would have more benefits compared to its negative environmental impacts. It would be the role of the proponent to ensure all the mitigations are observed for the benefit of the social and physical surroundings of the proposed project site. Otherwise, the environmental team would comment the project for implementation phase.

  • Ashford, N. 2001. Airport operations. New York: McGraw Hill Education.
  • Hirschler, M. 2002. Fire Hazard and Risk Assesment. London: ASTM international.
  • Lawrence, D. 2003. Environmental Impact Assesment: practical solutions to recurrent problems. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Morgan, R. 2000. Environmental Impact Assesment: A methodological approach. New York: Springer.
  • Morr, E. 2006. The protection guide to hazardious materials. New York: Pearson.
  • Morris, P. 2001. Methods of Environmental Impact Assesment. New York: Taylor& Francis.
  • Thompson, N. 2001. Fire Hazards in the Industry. New York: Elsevier.
  • Wood, C. 2003. Environmental Impact Assesment. New York Prentice Hall.

Guns and School Shooting Violence in US

Guns and School Shooting Violence in US

In today’s nation, firearms and school shootings have been controversial problems. However, in the United States, the number of students fired in schools has risen at an unprecedented pace. In reality, based on the statistics of student shooting events that have been reported, it has emerged that the profile of a student shooter cannot be identified with any group of students, since it has emerged that any student is capable of being a student shooter at any stage (Kleck, 1447). Although some are children of divorcees, some are loners, and still others are children of an ideal American family, profiling of such student shooters has shown that every profile of a student shooter will suit so many students, since it has emerged that although some are children of divorcees, some are loners, and still others are children of an ideal American family (Cavanaugh, et al, 317). The basic feature of Guns and School Violence is that, unlike shooting students in the head, shooting other students has been shown to be premeditated and orchestrated, with student shootings acquiring firearms long in advance and even following a significant public course of violence (Redding and Sarah, 297). Although several student shootings were discovered to plan their actions in secret, others were discovered to make their intentions public over time by repeated warnings that ultimately lead to the execution of the aggressive act of shooting. The key source of worry is the driving factors that lead gun violence in schools to escalate at such an accelerated pace.

While it is disturbing to think that weapons can make their way into schools and be used for abuse, the fact is that this is precisely what has occurred, and the figures are much higher than predicted. Indeed, such incidents have caused many students and parents to be afraid of classrooms, opting to study at home or in other private environments. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ 2011 survey on indices of campus crime and safety, 6 percent of high school students in the United States remained home because they felt unsafe at school or on their way to school (Cavanaugh, et al, 322). This fact shows how gun and school violence has changed the education system in the United States, and how it is continuing to paralyze public education, notably in communities where crime and gang violence are prevalent. According to the study, approximately 7% of students in grades 9 through 12 confessed to having been threatened with a firearm on school grounds at any point during their school careers, and 6% of those students admitted to bringing guns to school for safety and self-defense (Cavanaugh, et al, 321). This trend points to the possibility of turning educational institutions into violence clubs and military training camps, if the necessary and urgent measures are not taken to address the issue. Therefore, the education system is in total jeopardy by gun and school violence incidences, and unless sufficient measures are undertaken to avert this occurrence, the situation might turn to be uncontrollable and irreversible (O’Grady, Patrick and Justin, 77).

Guns and School Shooting Violence in US

Several factors have been attributed to the rise of gun and school violence in modern-day. The first of such factors is significant violent traumatizing that individuals have undergone during their childhood (Slovak, Karen and Linda, 78). Such acts may involve acts of child abuse and other violent acts that are perpetrated by adults or other teens on the young children. Such acts make the children to lose touch with the reality, always posing to meditate on the trauma and the suffering they have gone through. While such children live on violence meditation and reflection, they tend to make the children grow fond of violence, and develop the urge for revenge, which may occur in the form of perpetuating the violent acts on the same individuals who caused them to suffer earlier on, or avenging themselves by perpetuating the violent acts towards others, either those who seems more vulnerable or highly resistant (Regina and Birkland, 1198). Through the meditation on trauma, pain and suffering that individuals have experienced before, they tend to develop the dissociative character, where they stop getting in touch with the reality, a fact that allows the child to turn into a violent adult, whose action are not any close to the normalcy.  Therefore, to tame the gun and school violence, the first step is to address the abuses and the traumas that children are going through during their early life, which turns out to be the recipe for violence, when the child later grows up (Cavanaugh, et al, 339).  

A fundamental observation regarding gun and school violence is that; it has mostly affected the male gender, as compared to the female (Kleck, 1455). In fact, in certain instances, gun and school violence has become so gender-specific, that it has become synonymous with schoolboy violence. This question begs an answer as to what exactly promotes gun and school violence. This is because, while all children are prone to abuse and mistreatment at their early life, girls are even the most affected and vulnerable. However, when it turns to revenge and expressing the traumas that have been experienced through violence, the male gender becomes the most affected. It is at this point that the issue of accessibility and upbringing come into focus. First, while being brought up, boys are brought up with the mentality that they hold their destiny in their own hands, and thus it is incumbent upon them to protect their interests (Slovak, Karen and Linda, 95). This mentality becomes even more pronounced when such children come from dysfunctional families, or when such children have been abused earlier in their lives, and thus have developed mistrust and resentment against others.

Further, boys are well known to be adventurous, and thus have high accessibility to their parents’ weapons, or are able to connect easily to the suppliers of illegal arms and the black market operators (Lawrence and Thomas, 1194). This puts them in a better position to access guns, which allows them to perpetrate such violent acts, whenever they need to do it arises. Watching violent visual materials and playing violent video games also makes children develop a violent mentality, which makes such children have the desire to experience and exercise what they have been seeing in such games and films. Therefore, simply put, the mode of upbringing children influences the violent reaction of children to a certain extent. This explains the observation that it is difficult to profile the character of the gun and school violence perpetrators, since the perpetrators could be the loners and the children of dysfunctional families who have experienced abuses, or children of ideal families who have been brought up with access to weapons, violent films and video games (Slovak, Karen and Linda, 82).

At this point, a question arises as to what are the best methods can be used to curb gun and school violence. The application of stiffer penalties for possession of weapons within the school property or within the vicinity of the school property is one such preventive measure that can be adopted (Cavanaugh, et al, 342).  Despite the fact that such a move does not completely address the core problem of the motivations and the causes of such violent reactions for some students, it helps in a great way to deter the rise of incidences, which could see the proliferation of gun and school violence incidences, should such measures fail to be undertaken. Additionally, the application of such rules does not only help to deter gun and school violence, but also the penetration of minor weapons into the schools, which could fuel the physical violence, and eventually promote the need for gun use. The application of strict detective measures such as the use of metal and weapon detector, as well as searching, is yet another strategy that can be applied to reduce the incidences of gun and school violence (Kleck, 1459). This is because, when such measures are operationalized regularly, coupled with the stiff penalties for the possession of weapons, the students will fear to be caught, and thus will be deterred from bringing weapons to school.  

However, counseling services are the most essential and effective ways of curbing gun and school violence. This is because; counseling addresses the core motivations and causes of the student engagement in violent acts, thus helping to fully combat the problem (O’Grady, Patrick and Justin, 55). Adopting counseling services will go a long way in addressing the issue since counseling does not only help to avert the incidences of gun and school violence but also help the children undergoing trauma to recover and approach life differently. Counseling often assists students in finding the meaning of existence, especially for those who have lost contact with truth as a consequence of prior suffering (Kleck, 1460). They are able to value life and interpret it better as a consequence of such therapy, removing the desire for vengeance, which not only harms the survivor, but both the offender and the society at large. As a consequence, it is important to introduce therapy services for children that recognise those with deep-seated problems and assist them in addressing them until they become a full-fledged concern.

Works Cited:
  • Kleck, Gary. “Mass Shootings in Schools: The Worst Possible Case for Gun Control.” American Behavioral Scientist 52.10 (2009): 1447-1464. Print.
  • Regina, Lawrence and Birkland, Thomas. “Guns, Hollywood, and School Safety: Defining The School-Shooting Problem Across Public Arenas.” Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited) 85.5 (2004): 1193-1207. Print.
  • Cavanaugh, Michael et al. “How Many More Guns?: Estimating The Effect Of Allowing Licensed Concealed Handguns On A College Campus.” Journal Of Interpersonal Violence 27.2 (2012): 316-343. Print.
  • O’Grady, William, Patrick F. Parnaby, and Justin Schikschneit. “Guns, Gangs, and The Underclass: A Constructionist Analysis Of Gun Violence In A Toronto High School1.” Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice 52.1 (2010): 55-77. Print.
  • Redding, Richard, and Sarah M. Shalf. “The Legal Context of School Violence: The Effectiveness Of Federal, State, And Local Law Enforcement Efforts To Reduce Gun Violence In Schools.” Law & Policy 23.3 (2001): 297. Print.
  • Slovak, Karen, Karen Carlson, and Linda Helm. “The Influence of Family Violence On Youth Attitudes.” Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal 24.1 (2007): 77-99. Print.

Tips for Running a Fine Dining Restaurant and Bar

Tips for Running a Fine Dining Restaurant and Bar


A restaurant is placed which satisfies all appetites with plenty of food to eat for breakfast, lunch and even dinner. At the same time it provides various drinks that the customers may need. A bar is a place where people go to relieve themselves of the stress of the day or night by having some forms of drinks; they are also able to find some food in such kind of places.

A good restaurant should be able to create updated comfort food that is both big in portion and flavors for great value. Extensively small plate should offer items that the locals crave. Also the restaurant is serving breakfast, lunch, après and dinner with excellent food, genuine local color band exceptional value. 

Tips for Running a Fine Dining Restaurant and Bar

Objectives and Aims

Always for the restaurants or anything to be in place it must have some objectives and aims that it will tend to follow the latter, the objectives are;

  • The goals are to enjoy an innovative drink selection that stays true to the art of the cocktail.
  • To consume meals made from fresh food, free-range chicken, and meats that are not nitrate-free.
  • With its versatile selection of ready-to-eat and drink options, it provides ample time comfort.
  • Providing excellent coffee, hot and cold drinks, baked goods, breakfast, and lunch service.
  • To have an ideal location for refueling before a day’s activities.
  • And have free parking as well as nutritious, fresh produce.
Literature Review

Managers of bars and restaurants are in charge of the day-to-day activities of a company, managing inventory, executing staffing decisions and making sure customers are satisfied with the dining experience (Krezz, 2012). As the manager you’ll need to have strong math skills to handle large quantities of cash.. Although the food service management field was expected to experience relatively slow employment growth from (bureau of labor statistics, 2008-2018) reported that the outlook for job opportunities would be good during that time, due to the amount of managers who will leave the food service industry (US Bureau, 2008). Food service managers, which include a restaurant and bar managers, made a median annual income of$48, 130 in May 2010. They often have the benefit of free meals from the restaurant for which they work. Some restaurant gives bonus to managers who meet certain sales quotas.

Although no educational requirement for opening your own restaurant and bar are necessary, you should be able to educate yourself in various aspects of business operation in the food industry to increase your chances of success. You must meet state and local requirements for operating a food and alcohol serving business. In addition, you must stay in control of your employees, chefs, bartenders and accounting books ensure a smoothly operating business.

Steps to Follow

Business Operation and Management

One should be able to take a business class that familiarizes him or her with the specifics of starting a business in your own state. Learning how to write a company plan is a skill that many people acquire, file returns with the Internal Revenue Agency, network, and locate the best place for their business in these courses. These classes are often conducted by professionals, so take advantage of the ability to receive direct career guidance from the state. Other management courses show you how to handle staff such as cooks, bartenders, and servers.


Running a profitable restaurant involves balancing the books of accounts. To balance the accounts, one should have a basic understanding of accounting. If you have little experience handling company funds, estimating employee paychecks, or making food and produce purchases, take a quick accounting course. And if you plan to employ an accountant to run your restaurant, you can try to train yourself about simple accounting knowledge and procedures in order to remain interested in financial management.

Food Safety

Once the food is safe, the lives of customers are safe too. So the sanitations and food safety is the number one concern for restaurant management (Dahl J.O, 1994). Failing to do that a health inspection by the state can shut down your restaurant. Although chefs learn about food sanitation and kitchen safety during their schooling you should have the basic knowledge to influence and motivate new employees and the existing staff.

Bar Basics

These are always the basic but very much important requirements used within the food industry. Many states require bartenders to gain certification by taking a responsible serving-alcohol server certification course. The course teaches how to serve alcohol safely, when to stop serving intoxicated individuals, how to check false ID cards and how to be professional in the workplace. If you plan to act as a bartender, you will need to take the course to be in accordance with state law..

Food Marketing

Any business must be marketed so people know it exists (Amy F, 2011) The same goes for any restaurant business. If you have no creative ideas on how to market your restaurant, take a marketing course to learn about what works well for the food industry. This may include online marketing, social media advertising and offering sales, discounts and in-restaurant competitions

How to Handle Customers in the Bars and Restaurants

In dealing with the customers in these particular places the following steps should be followed to ensure a smooth run of the food and drink business

  1. Your Restaurant Staff

The first step in great customer service is your restaurant staff. A well trained front of house staff will keep customers happy and coming back for more. Not just anyone can wait tables or tend bar. Good wait staff is among the most talented people out there. They are friendly, but not annoying..

  1. Customer Complaints

The next great step in customer service is how you handle customer complaints. No matter how hard you try, things are bound to go wrong once in a while. Food gets burned, orders get forgotten in the middle of a dinner rush, or new servers simply forget all their training. No matter the reason for the complaint, the important thing is to try and please the customer. 

  1. Show Your Customer Appreciation

Actions speak louder than words, and that is certainly true of customer appreciation. There are countless ways you can show your customers how much you appreciate their business. And it doesn’t have to cost you a lot of money (or any money in some cases).

  1. Be Responsible

Responsibly serving liquor is probably the biggest way to show customers you value them. After all, you don’t want to see a patron who’s had too much to drink get behind the wheel of a car and hurt himself or someone else.

Problems and Solution

In every organization there must be problems. So we must be able to solve some of the problems that may arise in the bars and restaurant. Becoming a successful problem solver will help you immensely in this business. It’s important to have a staff that is trained on how to circumvent common issues that come up with customers. The following are some of the ways to solve problems;

Good Training

Good training is imperative to developing a strong, cohesive staff. Train your staff members according to the way you want your business to be run. Although some, maybe most, of your staff will have prior restaurant experience, do not rely on this and consider them trained. Give them as much detail about the company and protocol as possible.


Certain situations will arise that require calming down an angry customer or assisting someone who has slipped and fallen in your dining room. How you go about taking care of these occurrences will be very important to your reputation as people share their negative experiences far more often than their positive. You do not want to get a reputation as a place that treats your customers poorly. Excellent customer service is essential to most restaurants’ success. Yes, there are exceptions here but most people desire to be treated well.

Angry Customers

I would guess that nearly everyone has either dealt with an angry customer, being one themselves or both! Angry customers are customers who feel as if they are not being heard or respected. They may be irate and combative, using foul language, raising their voice, or even becoming physically threatening. Or, they may be silent and aloof. However their anger manifests itself, you must know how to listen to their experiences and complaints. This is your number one job and through this step alone, you have a good chance of diffusing the situation to a much more manageable level. 

Sick or Injured Customers

If a customer becomes sick or injured, make sure they get appropriate treatment immediately. This may mean they get home safely or that they are taken to a hospital emergency room depending on the situation. You must be sure to have the appropriate general liability insurance which protects you in the event that a customer hurts himself in your restaurant or develops food poisoning after eating there.


Not keeping the place clean (washrooms especially) will kill a restaurant. Successful bars and restaurants invest in retaining their customer base as seriously as seeking to attract new customers and staff training. For many years larger chains have employed the use of mystery shopping companies in order to gauge staff performance and customer satisfaction. This is now becoming much more accessible for smaller venues and offers a cost effective solution to ensure that important detail such as dirty toilets, sticky tables, poor service, staff incivility, as well as a wide range of additional testing categories are at the very top of your employee’s agent.

  • Amy F. (2011). Restaurant Marketing System. US: Reboth Publishers.
  • Dahl J.O. (1994). Restaurant Management. New York: Haper and Brothers.
  • Krezz, K. (2012). Food protection manager certification. Restaurant Journal , 21.
  • US Bureau. (2008, March 11). US Bureau of Labour Statistics. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from
  • US Govt: http://www.bls.gov.com

Strategic Audit of Nintendo’s

Strategic Audit of Nintendo’s


Strategic audits of a company are conducted with the aim of looking into a company’s strategies. It is a systematic way to approach what the company is doing so as to meet its goal. It also works to provide a solution to some of the issues that may limit the attainment of these goals. Nintendo has a long and illustrious tradition in the entertainment industry (Srinivasan, 2009). According to the company’s website, it was established in 1985 and has had success with nearly every piece of gaming hardware and software it has published. The company has been able to differentiate itself and gain a huge following in the gaming industry (Chang, 2010).

Strategic Audit

The business focuses on creating games that are simple to understand yet also being enjoyable. In comparison to its rivals, the firm provides a unique perspective on the gaming industry. The business focuses on making gaming enjoyable and easy for both children and adults. In addition, an attempt has been made to include both male and female gamers in the game experience.

Strategic Audit of Nintendo’s

The accessibility of Nintendo games is their biggest selling point. The product’s versatility can be seen from two perspectives. In the one side, there are gadgets that only have a few keys for control, such as the Wii console. Given this, they are able to provide consumers with a gaming experience unlike any other. Second, the games that they give to their consumers are easy to enjoy. These are usually simple to play. The business has continued to stand out from the market trend of just catering to a limited group of passionate gamers. It has been able to achieve so by launching consoles such as the newly launched Wii, which has outperformed competitors in the game console segment (Torres, 2013)

The organization has made an attempt to sell and distribute its goods in a manner that decreases both prices and distribution times for the products it sells. As a result, it has chosen to work with already existing retailers to get the goods to market in various parts of the world. Partnerships with businesses like Amazon, for example, mean that the business maintains a national footprint in the United States. As a result, their web marketplace would only be able to have spare parts for their items.

The group has put a lot of effort into making sure that the input they get from customers is put to good use. On the one side, the organisation has made a significant investment in ensuring that this knowledge is circulated within the organization in order for it to be useful. This sharing allows the different departments in the company to make use of this information to provide the right amount of adjustment in the products. The company has invested heavily in communication channels that have allowed for this to happen

The company’s main revenue stream is achieved from the sale of its gaming consoles. The company’s products in this area may be divided into two broad categories. There is the handheld category that includes devices such as the latest Nintendo 3DS. Then there is the home entertainment segment that includes consoles such as the Wii. Some part of the company’s revenue is also gained from licensing fees due to the use of some of the more famed company characters and logos.

At this point the company’s major asset may be thought to be the employees. Nintendo maintains a huge network of developers both in the company while others are outsourced. These developers have been able to bring to market console after console that has ensured the leadership of Nintendo. There are also the collaborations that the company has maintained with developers around the world for the games that run on these consoles.

The main partnerships that the company has are with the numerous suppliers of its gaming consoles. The company has no manufacturing plants and largely rely on outsourcing the manufacturing process. There is also the partnership that it maintains with the sales representatives that it has around the world. A third partnership that has worked well for the company is that between it and the myriad of retailers around the world responsible for delivering their products to the larger consumer base.

The company mains activity may be summarized as console creation. The space that they occupy is one where the competitors are not strictly gaming companies. Nintendo on the other hand has prided itself in giving its customers consoles that are easy to use and operate. There is also the simplicity that they have been able to offer clients in the games that come with these consoles. These are games that are aimed at both the young and the old, male and female gamers. Their main aim is to bring more and more people into gaming.

The company has prided itself in providing a service that few companies in the gaming sphere have been able to. One advantage of this is that they have a stronghold on their pricing structure. The products that the company offers are one that should create value to the client. Making most of their products conservatively priced (KAGEYAMA, 2013).


Two recommendations that may go towards aiding Nintendo is that they should try and move into the high end gaming market. This will add to their revenue streams while ensuring that they stay relevant for the long run. The other thing is that they should try and aim for more adaptability of their consoles to the markets. This will give them a larger sphere of developers.

Strategic Audit of Nintendo’s


  • Chang, P. (2010). Strategic audits: A necessity for transforming businesses. S.l.: P. Chang.
  • Kageyama, Y. (2013). Nintendo Wii U price will not be getting cut anytime soon. Huffington Post. Web.
  • Srinivasan, R. (2009). Strategic management: The Indian context. New Delhi: PHI Learning.
  • Torres, E. (2013, January 30). Nintendo Wii U topped by Wii sales. Examiner. Web.

View of Economic Impact of Global Tourism

View of Economic Impact of Global Tourism

People’s views of the environment have altered as a consequence of tourism. The word “global village” has been around for a while, but it was only because of global tourism that people realized what it really meant. The effect of foreign tourism on the global economy has been immense. Many countries would not perceive tourism to be a viable source of income, but now countries participate in the tourism sector in the same way they compete in other resources.

The following is a synopsis of six news stories regarding global tourism’s development and effects. This is quite useful.

The first essay, written by David Nakamura for the Washington Post, catches the true essence of foreign tourism. The news article explores how and why President Barack Obama modified policies to help the country’s tourism industry expand. The visa process would become more effective, making it simpler for people who want to visit the United States to access and experience the sights while also bringing in much-needed revenue for the government.

View of Economic Impact of Global Tourism

In the second half of the post, opposition lawmakers (republicans) are not pleased, but they are never against the proposals to increase tourism; rather, they are mocking Obama’s inability to do so. His ambitions are lofty, but he has little foundation on which to create them. Although critique has its position, there is no doubt that global tourism has altered our views of the economy and even international affairs. In 2010, tourism contributed 2.7 percent of GDP and funded 7.5 million workers in the United States (Nakamura, 2012). However, Obama’s message is more important than what he suggests when he claims he needs to speed up the visitor visa process; “We’re all here together to inform the world America is open for business,” he says. 2012 (Nakamura)

The second article discusses the luxuries that draw tourists in and how a scorching desert environment can become one of the world’s most famous tourist destinations. This is a blog entry by James Kanter that was written in the New York Times. The way Kanter addresses the economic effects of “global tourism” is fascinating. According to reports, a cool beach is being constructed in Dubai solely to cater to the filthy rich foreign visitors who want to lie on the sand in the heat, but the sand must be at the right temperature.

Like the underwater beach on the coast of Dubai. The image becomes apparent at first sight. In a single dimension, global tourism has little impact on the economy. It is not a case about how much coconuts a beach vendor offers as a consequence of increased tourist traffic. Tourism has a significant economic impact, but it still has a massive impact on the environment. The business, on the other side, is thriving. By 2030, it is anticipated that 1.6 billion visitors will have traveled the globe (Kanter, 2009).

The third essay provides a fresh viewpoint on global tourism and its effect on historic sites. Charles Starmer Smith wrote the post, which was published in Telegraph. The World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a non-profit organisation devoted to saving the world’s heritage buildings and sites. The majority of antique architectural buildings are very delicate, and when more people enter them, they deteriorate. Furthermore, there is an ever-increasing danger of global warming, as well as drastic shifts in weather and temperatures, which render it impossible for the world’s ancient and vulnerable systems to remain stable. As a result, the structures would not be able to withstand the test of time for too long.

No matter how valuable global tourism is to the economy, the reality remains that a rise in visits to the world’s temples is having a detrimental effect on the institutions. There will be no visitors entering the spot until the buildings are no longer there. Without a question, WMF has put in a lot of effort to raise money to help save the world’s most beautiful historical architectural masterpieces.

The fourth article is about the tourism between two countries specifically, in fact the tourism of one country into another. The article ‘Cuba: American Tourism is Slowly Coming Back’ is published in the Washington Times and is written by Bob Taylor. The article is an interesting account of the history between the two countries and how the tourism industry suffered at the hands of tension between the two countries. For instance, many people believed that US citizens can’t travel to Cuba but the fact is that they can travel there but they can’t spend money there (Taylor, 2012), which almost makes it the same thing. The two countries have had their bitter sweet history (mostly bitter actually) and they have been engaged in wars with each other.

Without going into the politics and the history of the two countries, now as Cuba is becoming a more stable state (Taylor, 2012), it tourism industry is reviving. It would be too farfetched to say that Cuba had returned to its glory days but gradually and surely, it is moving there. Cuba has beautiful beaches and if they market this tourism destination properly and are able to pull the US crowd to their beaches, it will begin a new history between the two countries.  

The fifth article is ‘The Not So Magic Kingdom’, published in the Time Magazine, written by Peter Gumbel. When the Disney company decided to open their theme park in Paris 20 years back (Gumbel, 2012), the world laughed at their choice as they chose rainy Paris over Sunny Barcelona and that there is no wine allowed there. The French thought that the project will soon fall apart and Disney will move somewhere else however, the results have been amazing. The world knows Paris for its Eifel Tower but the amazing part is that Paris’s Disney Land gets the same number of visitors each year as much as the Eifel Tower does. Plus in terms of revenue the Disney Land in Paris has generated over 55,000 jobs and the return on French investment is superb; $8.5billion in taxpayers’ money, this translates into $61 billion injected into the French economy (Gumbel, 2012); such is the power of Global Tourism.

Although Disney is facing a tough time in Paris at the moment however it has shown how strong a human attachment is to an object, character, thing or even a place. Disney shows how a monument can be created and how it can pull crowds of thousands upon thousands to visit the place. Disneyland is the proof that a country or any place doesn’t necessarily have to be beautiful with the perfect sunshine and greenery. It only needs sparkle to capture the imagination of the world and it turns into a hot tourist attraction.

The sixth and last article ‘International Tourism Growth Continues, UN Report Reveals’, and is published in Huffington Post. The report is very encouraging in the sense that Global Tourism will keep on increasing in the coming years. Despite concerns about the economy the travel for business or pleasure will keep on increasing, The major arrivals will be from the Asia side, Even the middle East will benefit in terms of tourism; last year its tourism dropped by 5% (Brady , 2013).

The most direct impact of the increase in tourism is on the travel industry. Tourism boosts travel industry. More plane tickets are bought, more services a person can avail in terms of travel plans and arrangements. The growth rate for the year 2013 for tourism will be stable or will move with a modest growth rate. The UN World Tourism Organization has conducted searches on the global tourism situation last year and they are predicting a better future for the international tourism industry.

Having said that, tourism brings in the much needed revenues a country wants. Just looking at Obama’s statement makes it clear how badly a country can need international tourists in its country.

Similarly increasing tourism between the two countries like the US and Cuba can stabilize relationship, this can also be a huge boost to both countries’ economy. The US would like to buy raw material from Cuba and would love to sell it to the world.  

So, as discussed in the paper, newspapers and magazines could not resist from publishing something regarding the economic impact of global tourism. It has changed the lives of many for the better. Countries that didn’t even have an economy are now building their financial empires based solely on their tourism industry.

  • Brady, Paul. “International Tourism Growth Continues, UN Report Reveals.” The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/31/global-travel-trends-impr_n_2589673.html>.
  • Gumbel, Peter. “The Not So Magic Kingdom.” Time. Time, 5 Nov. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2127790-4,00.html>.
  • Kanter, James. “Global Tourism and a Chilled Beach in Dubai.” Green Global Tourism and a Chilled Beach in Dubai Comments. N.p., 2 Jan. 2009. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/01/02/global-tourism-and-a-chilled-beach-in-dubai/>.
  • Nakamura, David. “Obama Announces Plan to Boost International Tourism to U.S.”Washington Post. The Washington Post, 19 Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/44/post/obama-announces-plan-to-boost-international-tourism-to-us/2012/01/19/gIQAQjneAQ_blog.html>.
  • Smith, Charles S. “Global Warming Joins Tourism as Biggest Threat to Historic Sites.”Telegraph. N.p., 9 June 2007. Web. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/artsandculture/737446/Global-warming-joins-tourism-as-biggest-threat-to-historic-sites.html>.
  • Taylor, Bob. “Cuba: American Tourism Is Slowly Making a Comeback.” Washington Times Communities. N.p., 19 Mar. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. <http://communities.washingtontimes.com/neighborhood/travels-peabod/2012/mar/19/cuba-american-tourism-slowly-making-comeback/>.

Battle of Brandywine and Saratoga Analysis

Battle of Brandywine and Saratoga Analysis


The War of Brandywine was a territorial struggle waged between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen North American colonies. During the American Revolutionary War, the fighting took place between 1775 and 1783. During the time of this battle, the British and the American forces engaged with each other on the battlefield located close to Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. The battle began on September 11, 1777, in a foggy morning. This weather enabled the British forces to gain a solid coverage, but later the weather turned into a blazing sun and heat. The War of the Brandywine was a decisive battle between “Big Britain and its thirteen North American colonies.” The United Kingdom emerged triumphant in this war, although the United States won a tactical victory. 1

During the war, the American forces were led by George Washington, while the British forces were led by William Howe. Washington had just endured a humiliating loss in New York, but a victory in the Brandywine battle was critical in reviving American strength and morale. Howe, on the other hand, was a massive inspiration[1]by the Philadelphia Campaign, which was mainly a British objective to capture Philadelphia during the American Revolutionary War. Both Howe and Washington had pivotal roles in deciding the results of the American Revolution.1

Battle of Brandywine and Saratoga Analysis

The Battle of Brandywine

The battle began in an early morning after the British, [2]and the Hessian soldiers departed from Kennett Square. They left after a stroll along the Brandywine Creek in order to encircle the American soldiers crossing Jeffries’ ford. This arose from a need to seize control of Philadelphia. On receiving information about the planned attack by the British, Washington organized his troops and positioned them at Chadd’s Ford, awaiting the arrival of the British troops.

On the other hand, the British soldiers grouped converged at a nearby Kennett Square and came up with a plan on how to launch their attack. Their plan was to have part of the troops march from Kennett Square in a manner indicating intentions to meet Washington and his troops at Chadds Ford. The bulk of Howe’s men were to march north of Wistar’s Ford, then cross the river at an unspecified place unknown to Washington. The British troops beat Washington and his troops on their own battlefield due to superior strategy and battlefield experience.2

The British mounted an effort in 1777 to put down the smoldering uprising in their North American colonies. Its key aim was to separate the colonies by sending converging expeditions to the Hudson Valley. During this time, General Howe declined to fight at Saratoga and instead went to Pennsylvania, where he beat Washington in the Brandywine war. Howe won over Philadelphia and overcame Washington’s assault on Germantown in Brandywine.

The victory in the Battle of Saratoga was aided by diplomatic support from France and other European countries. The war in the Middle Atlantic area came to a halt at one point, but international assistance was ultimately brought in to save the situation. Following the Battle of Saratoga, France formed a coalition with the United States, and Franklin and the French foreign minister of the time concluded a treaty. In 1779, Spain waged war on the United Kingdom. In the other hand, the assistance given by the Spanish to the Americans was of little help to the Americans. The French, on the other hand, provided enormous support in the form of troops, sailors, provisions, and resources, all of which were critical to America’s victory at Saratoga.

The [3]The Americans tried to struggle valiantly, but the British forces had outwitted them on the Brandywine’s rolling hills. The victory did not deter the arrival of British forces at the battleground, who managed to arrive during the night. Despite the fact that the British troops were totally exhausted, their morale to camp on the battlefield and its surroundings remained high. However, the surrender of the American troops from the battle did not demoralize the troops. To them, their defeat was not as a result of poor fighting tactics but rather due to unfamiliarity with the terrain and poor reconnaissance information.3 In the coming days, General Howe and his troops made closer approaches towards Philadelphia without much opposition from Washington and his men. The British and the American troops moved around with high hopes of finding the enemy at a disadvantage, but there were no any decisive military actions that were undertaken over a period of two weeks.

Increased pressure from the British troops forced the Congress to give up on Philadelphia in order to move to Lancaster and later to New York before the British arrival for a takeover. To be on the safe side, the congress had to move essential military supplies out of Philadelphia to Reading and Pennsylvania, where security was guaranteed. After the successful capture of Philadelphia by [4]the British troops, Washington made a cautious response. The loss of Philadelphia had immense implications on the patriot cause. On the other hand, Washington’s men had declined from approximately 15,000 before the start of the battle to about 6’000 at the time of surrender.

The American troops got food and clothing from the local leaders. In addition, the congress added further reinforcement, which saw Washington regaining his fighting morale since he felt that there was sufficient support that would assist his men in launching a new attack. However, it was too late for the Americans to save Philadelphia because the British troops had already taken over the city.4

Battle of Saratoga

Following this successful battle, the European powers, especially the French gained interest on Americans and began offering support to the Americans. In September of 1777, Major General Burgoyne came up with a plan on how to defeat the Americans. According to Burgoyne, the New England was the main seat of the rebellion. Therefore, he suggested eliminating the rebellion from the rest of the colonies by shifting down the Hudson River corridor. The second strategy was to have a second force under the leadership of Colonel Barry advancing east of Lake Ontario. On the other hand, the third troop under the leadership of General Howe was to advance north from New York. General Howe had gotten approval from London, but his role in the plan remained not clearly defined, which made it difficult for Burgoyne to issue orders Howe.5

Burgoyne’s plan began to materialize [5]once Fort Ticonderoga got into the hands of his men. Capturing the port enabled the troops to move further into the south from Lake Champlain. However, Burgoyne’s plan began to cause trouble, especially in securing supplies. Another move that ended up causing trouble to Burgoyne was his attempt to dispatch troops to raid Vermont for supplies.5

At this point, Burgoyne appeared to be terribly lonely and had serious challenges in obtaining supplies. This situation forced him to choose the south direction in attempts to capture Albany before winter. However, a soldier under the command of General Horatio opposed Burgoyne’s move. Later, Horatio got an appointment to command an army that was growing rapidly due to success at Bennington.5

September 7, 1777 saw Horatio and his men move north from Stillwater and took over strong positions atop Bemis Heights, which lies approximately ten miles south of Saratoga. On the other hand, the American camp had fastened tensions while the relationship between Horatio and Arnold continued to sour. However, the souring relationship did not stop Arnold from taking command over the left-wing as well as the responsibility to prevent the capture of heights to the west. After crossing the Hudson on the northern part of Saratoga, Burgoyne was in a good position to advance on the Americans. However, Americans efforts to block the road, broken terrain, and heavy woods [6]denied Burgoyne a chance to attack the Americans. On his side, Burgoyne came up with a three-prong attack on Americans.6

The three-prong attack was to have Riedesel advancing with mixed British-Hessian troops along the river while Burgoyne and Brigadier Hamilton were to move inland and then make a turn to the south in order to attack Bemis Heights. The third set up was under the command of Brigadier Fraser and was to move further into the inland and focus on turning the Americans to the left. In the American camp, there were serious disagreements between the commanders after Horatio failed to mention Arnold in a report prepared for the congress in relation to the Freeman’s Farm battle.6 After serious confrontations, Horatio relieved Arnold of his duties and appointed General Lincoln to take over the roles of Arnold. However, despite having a chance to go back to Washington’s army, Arnold decided to remain in Horatio’s camp as more and more troops arrived at the camp.6

After a continued fight between the Americans and the British troops, Burgoyne could not withstand the massive losses further. His first move was to withdraw some of the troops from the northern region. Later called for the council of war after realizing that his supplies were exhausted, and he could no longer sustain his men in Saratoga. Although[7]Burgoyne troops were optimistic of fighting their way towards the north, Burgoyne had no option but to open surrender negotiations with Horatio. Initially, Horatio had demanded an unconditional surrender, but later agreed to sign a treaty of the convention, which required Burgoyne’s men to be taken to Boston as prisoners. In addition, the troops were to be permitted to return to England on the grounds that they will never engage again in a fight, in North America.7

In October 17, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered the remaining troops. This marked the turning point of the American Revolution War since America’s victory at Saratoga proved to be a vital achievement in securing a treaty of partnership with France.7

Analytically, considering the Brandywine battle and the Saratoga battle, the Brandywine battle was fought first, and the Americans lost the battle to Great Britain. On the other hand, Americans win in the Saratoga battle marked the first major American win in the revolutionary war. After winning this battle, a number of European nations were comfortable to get into alliances with America. Therefore, one can deduce that the battle of Brandywine was a tactical win in the right direction for the United States to gain recognition from France and isolate the British diplomatically. [8]This can be supported using a number of facts.

One, the French government was much willing to form alliances with America in its future battles. This is evident from the treaties signed by America and French representatives in 1778. These two nations signed two treaties; a treaty of amity and commerce, and a treaty of alliance. This moved proved that France had full confidence in the United States and was ready to become a major player in providing military supplies to Washington’s troops. In the signing of the treaties, the two nations promised each other to fight until America gets its independence. In addition, the two nations agreed that none of them was to collaborate with Britain without consent from the other nation. The treaty further guaranteed each other’s belongings in America against the other superpowers.

Later on, the American struggle for independence became much bigger and would later turn into a world war. When British vessels fired on the French ship, America and France had no option other than getting into war with Britain. In 1779, Spain chose to assist the two nations in fighting Britain where it entered the war as a France ally. In the following year, Britain declared war on the Dutch on the basis that it was engaging in profitable business with America and France. Apart from fighting the Americans, Britain had to fight India, the Mediterranean, the West Indies, the high seas, and Africa. In doing so, Britain was creating a suitable ground for France and America to invade its territory.[9]


In conclusion, the battle of Brandywine depicted Washington’s leadership at its worst and best scenarios. Troops under Washington’s command were fully determined to tackle the British troops till they emerge the winners. Washington had his blame on the unreliable intelligence information he had received.  The battle can be regarded as having being a tactile win for the United States as it formed the basis for the American struggle for independence, as depicted by the revolutionary war. The failure of the Americans during the battle of the brandy wine motivated them to be well organized for future wars. As a result, it can be inferred that the United States won the war of brandy wine on a tactical level.

  • Clement, Justin. Philadelphia 1777: Taking the Capital. New York: Osprey Publishing, 2007.
  • Fassett, Joseph. The Battle of Saratoga – Freeman’s Farm.  Lock Stock and Barrel Living History Newsletter and Event Calendar 4. 2 (2001): Retrieved from: http://www.revolutionarywararchives.org/saratogafarm.html
  • Hooton,  Francis. (2010). The Battle of Brandywine: With Its Lines of Battle: The Old Flag’s Baptism of Fire, Etc. Charleston: BiblioBazaar.
  • McGuire, Thomas. The Philadelphia Campaign: Brandywine And the Fall of Philadelphia. Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books, 2006.
  • Monday, Bruce. September 11, 1777: Washington’s Defeat at Brandywine dooms Philadelphia. New York: White Mane Books, 2002.
  • Monday, Bruce. Along the Brandywine River. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2001.
  • Nardo, Don. The Battle of Saratoga. Mankato: Capstone, 2008.
  • View, Wendy. The Battle of Saratoga. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003.
  • [1] Hooton,  Francis. (2010). The Battle of Brandywine: With Its Lines of Battle: The Old Flag’s Baptism of Fire, Etc. Charleston: BiblioBazaar. p.3.
  •  [2] Monday, Bruce. Along the Brandywine River. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2001. p.23-25.
  • [3] McGuire, Thomas. The Philadelphia Campaign: Brandywine And the Fall of Philadelphia. Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books, 2006. pp. 313-317.
  • [4] Monday, Bruce. September 11, 1777: Washington’s Defeat at Brandywine dooms Philadelphia. New York: White Mane Books, 2002. p.87.
  • [5] Clement, Justin. Philadelphia 1777: Taking the Capital. New York: Osprey Publishing, 2007. P.42-43.
  • [6] View, Wendy. The Battle of Saratoga. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. pp. 7-13
  • 7 Nardo, Don. The Battle of Saratoga. Mankato: Capstone, 2008. pp. 49-52
  • 8 Frassett, Joseph. The Battle of Saratoga – Freeman’s Farm.  Lock Stock and Barrel Living History Newsletter and Event Calendar 4. 2 (2001) 

Career Choices Essay Example

Career Choices Essay Example

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Thesis Statement
  • Discussion
  • First Choice Career: Corporate Lawyer
  • Second Choice Career: Law Professor
  • Conclusion
  • Works Cited


Career planning has undoubtedly emerged as a vital concern for the current generation to secure better reputation, healthy living, successful establishment and satisfaction in the later life. It is fundamentally owing to the fact that today young people have greater access to a variety of career options which makes them decide upon multiple attributes in accordance with their expectations. It is worth mentioning in this regard that expectations from a particular career choice has altered significantly over the past, being strongly influenced by the rapidly changing lifestyle preferences of the human society. These alterations have further attracted the focus of the career planners towards issues concerning the regular job hours, stress level on-the-job, remunerations, growth opportunities as well as versatility in the job responsibilities. Following the determination of these aspects on the basis of the academic skills, cognitive competencies and economic abilities of the candidate, the career path is selected (Fogg, Harrington and Harrington 21-30).

Career Choices Essay Example

Thesis Statement

Considering these issues, I wish to select my career option as a corporate lawyer. However, owing to the fact that the industrial contexts are rapidly changing which might alter the attributes which I had considered when selecting upon the career option of a corporate lawyer, I have decided the job role of a law professor as my second career option. This paper will therefore attempt to discuss upon my career choices and their attributes which should be taken into concern when developing myself as a prospective candidate for the intended job positions.


First Choice Career: Corporate Lawyer

The strong inspirations to influence me for considering about corporate lawyer as a career option have been my family and friends who knew people from a similar career. Even the friends who were associated with businesses advised me to take up the option as a worthy career choice after identifying my skills and hard-working nature. Contextually, after reviewing various articles and consulting with my professors along with the people whom my friends knew as corporate lawyers, I was able to understand that the job responsibilities in relation to this particular career is quite challenging. Undoubtedly, the sustenance as well as the legal viability of a corporate entity relies upon the shoulders and competitiveness of the lawyer which further determines the livelihood of many people. I also observed that corporate lawyers in today’s highly competitive scenario need to handle multiple deals at once, which further creates a mental as well as a physical stress upon the professionals making them work for 24×7. However, depending on the excellence of the professional, it can be affirmed that job security is greater in this career path in comparison to various other choices. It is in this context that corporate lawyers can also operate as a self-employed, once he/she gains the reputation of a reliable lawyer amid the industrial context (Graham, “My Law Career Lasted Two Years”; Guch, “Corporate Law: Area Of Practice”).  

The fundamental skills required to be possessed by a competitive corporate lawyer is the crucial understanding of the business operations in order to identify the clients’ needs and the actual legal problem along with the understanding of the judicial policies, which in turn assists them to address the issue with greater criticality as per the demand of the client. However, corporate lawyers also need to concentrate upon various other factors including the ethical concerns to support their clients, which in turn increase their mental pressure. Additionally, as the preparation of legal formalities and the entire process is considered as a lengthy and tiring process, the professionals may have to work for long hours witnessing physical stress as well (Schneider and Belsky 100-107).

Nevertheless, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics report have predicted that a substantial rise in the demand for corporate lawyers is quite likely to take place within 2018 which increases the chances of gaining a competitive job position after my graduation. On an average, the current salary structure for a corporate lawyer is identified as USD 110,590 per annum which again increases with the experiences of the professional. The remuneration can also vary on the basis of the corporate firm and the criticality of the issues dealt with; hence, rendering greater opportunity of earning a handsome salary (Education-Portal.com, “Corporate Law Career Options and Salary Information”). Therefore, to become a corporate lawyer I plan to opt for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) to pursue a Master of Laws (LL.M.) degree. Current estimations depict that the degree will cost around USD 10,000 to USD 60,000 depending on the type of course selected, i.e. either part-time or full-time. As I wish to select a full-time course, the degree is likely to cost more than USD 40,000 in a reputed college. Hence, I will also require obtaining financial aid through educational loans apart from personal finance (Montauk, “LLM Fees and Costs”).     

Second Choice Career: Law Professor

My second choice of career would be to get established as a Law professor in a reputed law school. In many instances, it has been observed that students select the option of investment banking and corporate consultants as their second career choices when opting for the profession of corporate lawyers. However, I wish to opt for the position of a law professor. Unlike the job responsibilities and the stress level witnessed by the corporate lawyers, law professors need to experience comparatively lesser challenges. In accordance with the lower degree of criticality, law professors are also entitled for comparatively lesser remuneration which is currently observed to be USD 66,469 per annum on an average (Davidoff, “The Economics of Law School”). Nevertheless, the significance of such a position can be termed as quite competitive in the current socio-economic context. Similarly, the lower remuneration can be justified on the basis that law professors also need to undergo comparatively lesser mental and physical stress. The job hours can also be observed to be fixed for the profession of law professors.   

It is worth mentioning in this regard that to achieve the position of law professors in a reputed college; the candidate needs to pursue a degree course in law, i.e. LL.M along with any other degree course that can facilitate a better understanding of the business scenario. With this concern, I wish to obtain a Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degree as well, after completing my LL.M course. A relative experience as a corporate lawyer will also be required in order to gain excellence in the selected job role of a law professor (Wish, “The Academic Path: Becoming a Law Professor”). This particular career option is also quite likely to render admirable growth opportunities with greater scope of versatility. Contextually, along with the profession of a law professor, I shall also gain the opportunity to practice part-time corporate lawyership. Furthermore, I can also involve in research works, writing thesis and books which can facilitate the education sector. Therefore, from an overall perspective, the profession of a law professor will provide me with greater opportunity to get engaged with multiple job roles and thereby minimize the degree of job insecurity in my later life.


Stating precisely, I wish to opt for a challenging profession in my early career which will facilitate better career growth opportunities and job security in my later life. The few elements which I perceive to be quite significant when determining upon the available career options is the degree of labor required to deal with the stress offered by the profession along with the cost required to pursue the intended course and the prospects of earning. Analyzing these factors in relation to the profession of corporate lawyers, I was quite satisfied to identify that the job can offer me with a satisfactory social and economic position in my later career. However, even though my current observations depict that the job role of a corporate lawyer will be suitable for me, from a critical viewpoint I perceive that in case the future scenario related to my first career choice become progressively more challenging and unstable, I shall opt for the position of a law professor in a reputed law college. Notably, both the career options present a distinct job stress level, along with different remuneration packages and challenges. Evaluating both the options, I would confirm the profession of a corporate lawyer as my first choice and being a law professor as my second career choice.

Works Cited:
  • Davidoff, Steven M. The Economics of Law School. The New York Times, 2012. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.
  • Education-Portal.com. Corporate Law Career Options and Salary Information. Financial, Banking, and Securities Law, 2013. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.
  • Fogg, Neeta P., Harrington, Paul E. and Harrington, Thomas F. College Majors Handbook with Real Career Paths and Payoffs: The Actual Jobs, Earnings, and Trends for Graduates of 60 College Majors. Indianapolis: JIST Works, Inc., 2004. Print.
  • Graham, Chris. My Law Career Lasted Two Years. The Globe and Mail, 2010. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.
  • Guch, Karen. Corporate Law: Area of Practice. GTI Media Ltd, 2013. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.
  • Montauk, Richard. LLM Fees and Costs. LLM Study, n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2013.
  • Schneider, Deborah. and Belsky, Gary. Should You Really Be a Lawyer?: The Guide to Smart Career Choices Before, During and After Law School. United States of America: Niche Press, LLC, 2004. Print.
  • Wish, V. The Academic Path: Becoming a Law Professor. LLM Guide, 2012.  Web. 04 Jan. 2013.