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Supernova Ltd Entry Into Australian Market


Executive Summary

A tablet computer is a portable computer with a touch screen LCD and a virtual keyboard. Because of its resemblance to a mobile phone, this device is sometimes known as a mobile computer. However, the device has all of the basic computer functions, including as internet connectivity, an office suite, and entertainment options. With the aforementioned product, Supernova ltd., a German company, plans to join the Australian market. Consumers in Australia are eager to try new and creative goods, therefore there is a lot of potential for the product to succeed.

The primary goal of the research is to determine how much demand for this product exists in Australia, as well as to learn about customer acceptance of new and creative goods. The research will look at Porter’s Five Forces in connection to the electronic computer industry in Australia, in addition to assessing consumer requirements and wants. The research will also highlight the cultural differences between the two countries, based on Hofstede’s cultural dimension model.

The primary conclusion of the study is that tablet computers are in high demand in Australia, with some forecasting groups projecting that sales would skyrocket in the next years.

Supernova Ltd Entry Into Australian Market

Table of Contents

  • Threat of new Entrants
    • Economies of Scale
    • Brand Loyalty
    • Capital Requirement
    • Analysis
  • Threat of substitutes products
    • Switching Cost
    • Buyer Loyalty
    • Analysis
  • Bargaining power of buyers
    • Number of customers in the market
    • Availability of Substitutes
    • Analysis
  • Bargaining Power of Suppliers
    • Degree of supplier concentration
    • Availability of substitute inputs
    • Analysis
  • Existing Rivalry
    • Industry growth rate
    • Demand for product
    • Analysis
  • Recommendations
  • Hofstede’s cultural dimension
    • Cultural dimensions of Australia and Germany
    • Difference between two cultures
    • Recommendation
  • Conclusion
  • Reference

Threat of New Entrants

Companies that are currently not competing in a particular sector but have the potential to participate if they chose to do so are referred to as new entrants.

Economies of Scale

Economies of scale refer to the reduction in unit cost of manufacturing when a business expands its production capacity. Cost reduction via mass manufacturing is one of the causes. b) A discount was obtained by purchasing in quantity. b) Spreading fixed manufacturing costs across a larger volume of output. d) The same cost of advertising for a high volume of manufacturing. 1 As a result, Supernova Limited may opt for large-scale manufacturing to get a cost advantage, but they can do a pilot test or test marketing before making a choice.

Brand Loyalty

When customers are more attracted towards the goods of the industry’s established companies, they are displaying brand loyalty. 2By utilizing powerful advertising, excellent product quality, and offering after-sales support, businesses may build brand loyalty. According to a recent research, Australians do not pay a premium for brand names, preferring instead to choose cheaper brands that provide excellent value for their money. As a result, Supernova Limited must sustain client loyalty by keeping a consistent pricing level while also meeting consumer requirements.

  1.  Gareth Jones and Charles Hill, Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach (US: Cengage Learning, 2009), 44.
  2. William M. Pride and O.C. Ferrell, Marketing (US: Cengage Learning, 2011), 400.

Capital Requirement

Capital requirement is the amount needed for the cost of production and considering the fact that the firm is a new entrant in the market, the total cost will also include the whole set up of the company to start its operation. The entire set up will include manufacturing in the factory, raw materials, labor charges and all other variable cost. Since the company does not have any restrictions in the financial segment they can undertake all the required operations.


Since the company does not have any restriction in the financial segment they can go for large scale production but a small pilot test must be conducted in order to analyze its acceptance in the market. Now the most important factor is that Australians are not at all brand loyal they always move towards cheaper brands, therefore in this situation supernova ltd. must follow a penetration pricing strategy to get the initial market share. With the given favorable conditions and sound financial stability threat of new entrants in the market is high.

Threat of Substitutes Products

Substitute goods are distinguished by the availability of products from the same category that fulfill the same function as the original. 3There is no direct substitutes of electronic tablets in Australia. But there are substitutes which are having small differences in the features of the product. The substitutes which have been identified are I-pad by Apple, smart phones, mini Laptops by different companies such as Samsung, Lenovo and other market players and electronic reader by Amazon’s Kindle.

3. Daniel Roy, Strategic Foresight and Porter’s Five Forces: Towards a synthesis (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2011

Switching Cost

Switching cost is the cost which is borne by customers in the form of time, energy and money.4 In other words the cost one has to bear when somebody switches from using a product of the established company to the product of another company in the market. The customers get locked to the existing company when the switching cost is high. In this case electronic tablets and the other substitutes, the price difference is small. And with the availability of big brands in the substitute segment it will merely cost the customers any loss of time or energy.

Buyer Loyalty

Buyer’s loyalty is the measurement of how a buyer is faithful towards a brand.5Given that Australians preferred to move towards the low priced products with high product value, they can easily accept or try new forms of electronic tablets such as smart phones or I-pads. Their enthusiasm for trying new gadgets will always be high as they are considered technical savvy.


With the intention of Australian consumers it can be easily stated that it will be easy for them to switch from one product to other substitute forms such as smart phones, I-pads or mini laptops. The additional factor is that the price difference between the substitute and existing product is also less. Therefore it can be concluded that the threat of substitutes is high.

4. Gareth R. Jones and Charles W. L. Hill, Essentials of Strategic Management (US:

5. Cengage Learning, 2011), 48.

6. Bill Carey and Chantal Howel- Carey, Make Money As a Buyer’s Agent: Double Your Commissions by Working With Real Estate Buyers (US: John Wiley and Sons, 2007), 173.

Bargaining Power of Buyers

The capacity of customers to negotiate and lower the price of a commodity or raise the cost of a business by demanding higher quality goods and services is referred to as bargaining power of the buyer.6 Bargaining power depends on how quickly the buyer identifies other sources.7 Now the main target customers for this product in Australia will be technical savvy persons and business managers. The lighter version with low cost can be targeted to student groups as well. Apart from these segments there can also be an alternative customer base which can be higher income group. They will purchase it for their satisfaction and to showcase the status in the society.

Number of Customers in the Market

This section is about the demand for the product in domestic market. In a study recently conducted by ‘tel-syte’ it has been observed that there is a huge demand for tablet pc’s in Australian domestic market. There were almost double numbers of tablets sold in Australia in 2011 compared to the preceding year. Marketers have also predicted that the sales volume will increase in the years to come.

Availability of Substitutes

Availability of substitutes in this context refers to the availability of substitute consumers. The product is mainly intended for retail customers. But apart from retail customers there are business clients. Therefore rigorous marketing in the in business to business segment will certainly give a competitive advantage to Supernova Ltd. Institutional clients can also be approached for the generating trade.

7. Gareth R. Jones and Charles W. L. Hill, Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach (US: Cengage Learning, 2009), 64.

8. Businessmate. What are Michael Porter’s 5 forces. http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=9.


Australians are very much reactive to the price change of a product. Similarly they are inclined towards the value of a product. They believe in having low cost and high product values. Therefore it can be clearly affirmed that with the availability of fewer competitors in the market the bargaining power of the consumers are medium.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Other companies that supply raw materials, services, and occasionally even personnel to the host company are known as suppliers. Bargaining power refers to a supplier’s capacity to raise the price of raw materials or lower the quality of products and services by providing poor quality materials at a cheap price.8 The primary raw materials for the electronic tablets includes LCD screens, touch screen film, fan-less motherboard, flash memory, battery and other technical requirements include wires, capacitors, connectors, resistor, switches etc. The suppliers of such material in Australian market include Lacie, Mesostate LCD industries ltd, techbuy Australia and 3M Australia among many others. Apart from the domestic suppliers there are also availability of raw materials through online purchase from websites like alibaba, global source, techbuy and deals direct to consider a few.

Degree of Supplier Concentration

The number of suppliers of raw materials for manufacturing an electronic tablet computer is relatively large. The exact number of suppliers cannot be calculated but it there are several numbers. They are not exactly from the same location but scattered in different parts of Australia such as New South Wales, Sydney, Adelaide, Victoria and Canberra.

Availability of Substitute Inputs

Availability of substitute input refers to the presence of other raw materials by which an electronic tablet computer can be manufactured. But in this case such application is not possible.

9. Mike W. Peng, Global Strategy (US: Cengage Learning, 2008), 41.


Considering the fact that there is availability of a large number of suppliers of raw material for the manufacturing of electronic tablets, the bargaining powers of the suppliers are relatively low.

Existing Rivalry

This force reflects the competition within the industry.9 Rivalry among industry is about the intensity of competition among the organizations of the electronic tablet computer industry. The competitors also manufacture the same kind of product to sell in the market. Competitors within this industry are Samsung, Apple, HTC, Dell, Asus, Toshiba, Acer, Pandigital etc.

Industry Growth Rate

According to a marketing research firm in Australia there were more than 1.4 million tablets sold all over the country. They are predicting that within 2012 the sales volume will touch 2 million and the most encouraging data provided by them is that within 2016 there will be 5 million tablets sold i.e. half of the population of Australia will be using tablet pc. The industry growth rate is calculated to a mammoth 330% per annum.

Demand for Product

The nation is seen as a potential market for tablet computer manufacturers. With the industry’s strong growth rate, it’s clear that there’s a lot of demand for the goods in Australia. Tablet computers have been hailed as a game-changing device in the electronics industry. The tablet PC market in Australia is projected to expand exponentially with growing adoption of the product, according to ‘Australia tablet PC and market forecast opportunities, 2016’. Most significantly, it succeeds admirably in bridging the gap between a smartphone and a laptop computer. Another reason for success is that Australia has a high number of internet users, and this program is well supported by a tablet and a computer.

10. Porters Five Forces. Rivalry among existing firms in the industry. http://www.portersfiveforces.org/rivalry-among-existing-firms-in-the-industry/


There are several tablet producers in Australia, as well as alternative goods like as smart phones and small computers. As a result, it is obvious that there is fierce rivalry within the sector.


After conducting the analysis of porters five forces in the Australian market the following are the findings:-

  • Threat of new entrants in the market is high.
  • Threat of substitute products is also on the higher side.
  • The bargaining powers of the customers are medium.
  • The bargaining powers of the suppliers are low.
  • The competition among the industry is also high.

Based on the above findings the following recommendation can be drawn:-

  • The company must enter the Australian market with penetration pricing strategy, considering the fact that Australian consumers prefer brands that offer low price but gives good value of the product. They must also use product differentiation in the form of some extra flash memory or a preloaded useful application like YouTube downloader, face- book, twitter and online share trading software.
  • The second recommendation is that the company before going for a large scale production must go for a small scale venture by conducting a pilot test of test marketing. This will give them an idea of the acceptance of the product.
  • The company must develop its advertising campaign keeping in mind the Australian culture and some catchy taglines which may help in grabbing customer attention.
  • Higher-income groups, businesspeople, technology-savvy individuals, and a lighter version for students should all be prioritized.

In order to have more insights of the electronic tablet industry and also to have an internal assessment a SWOT analysis is also conducted to know the Strengths, Weakness, opportunities and threats of the company. The analysis is shown below:-


–          The company is financially strong enough to compete in the market.

–          Supernova Ltd. focuses on product differentiation.

–          Previous experience in the particular product line.


–          The company lacks exposure in foreign markets.

–          Lack of brand name, brand image and customer base.

–          Initially the company has to spend a lot in setting up the infrastructure.


–          Tablet pc’s have great demand in Australia.

–          Australian consumers move toward the new brands which offer subsequent product value.

–           Penetration pricing will give high market share.


–          Availability of substitute products like smart phones and mini laptops.

–          Competitors like Samsung, dell and Lenovo will give stiff competition.

–            The product is only meant for higher income groups which may reduce the sales volume.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension

Cultural Dimensions of Australia and Germany

Greet Hofstede has proposed a systematic process for distinguishing the national cultures of different countries with respect to the organizational culture. The theory is known as cultural dimension theory. The theory is a bit complex but still it is widely used.10 The dimensions identified by Greet Hofstede in his theory include Power distance index, Individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoidance index, quality vs. quantity of life and time orientation.11  

Dimensions Australia Germany
Power distance Low Low
Uncertainty Avoidance Practical Higher, by using expertise
Collectivism vs. Individualism Individualism Individualism
Quality vs. Quantity of life Quality Quality
Time Orientation Short termed Short termed

                                                         (Source: Author’s Creation)

11. Ralph Johann, Cross-Cultural Management: The Case of the DaimlerChrysler Merger. (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2008), 5.

 12. Businessmate. What are Geert Hofstede’s 5 Cultural Dimensions. http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=4.

Graphically it is shown below:-

Supernova Ltd Entry Into Australian Market

                            (Source: http://geert-hofstede.com/australia.html)

Difference Between Two Cultures

It can be easily identified that the cultural difference based on Hofstede cultural dimension between Australia and Germany is very less or negligible, apart from the fact that there is a small amount of difference between the two countries in dimension of uncertainty avoidance index. The Australians are more practical thinkers than the Germans.


With the exception of the uncertainty avoidance rating, there is virtually little variation in culture between the two nations. In Australia there is a need of both generalist as well as experts. This factor can be overcome by the use of proper planning.


The research has been conducted to know about the Australian consumers, suppliers, their culture and also their take on the new innovative technologies and products such as electronic tablet computers. The research tools which are used in the process include Porter’s five forces and Hofstede’s cultural dimension model. After going through all the research processes the following are the findings:-

13. Geert Hofstede. What about Australia. http://geert-hofstede.com/australia.html.

  • In Australian electronic tablet industry there is a healthy competition among the market players. There is also availability of substitute products in the form of smart phones and mini laptops which also gives a stiff competition. Customers’ negotiating power is restricted since they only have a few options to choose from. While on the other hand the bargaining power of suppliers is low because there is many suppliers of raw-materials are already present in the industry. Apart from this the threat of a new entrant in this market is also on the higher side, as the industry offers favorable conditions. Therefore it is highly recommended that companies must have tight entry barriers.
  • By analyzing the cultures dimensions of two countries, it has been observed that there is a small cultural difference in the country in the form of uncertainty avoidance. Australians are very much practical in this scenario than the Germans.    

 After doing all the analysis of the given factors it can be stated that Supernova Ltd. can easily enter the Australian market with their product. But there are some preventive measures that need to be adopted such as to observe cautiously the price fluctuations in the industry and accordingly adjust the price. With the advantage of having negligible cultural differences of two countries the business may become well established in Australia.

  • Businessmate. What are Geert Hofstede’s 5 Cultural Dimensions. http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=4.
  • Carey, Bill. And Chantal H. Carey. Make Money As a Buyer’s Agent: Double Your Commissions by Working With Real Estate Buyers. US: John Wiley and Sons, 2007.
  • Ferrell. O. C. and William M. Pride. Marketing. US: Cengage Learning, 2011.
  • Geert Hofstede. What about Australia. http://geert-hofstede.com/australia.html.
  • Geert Hofstede. What about Germany. http://geert-hofstede.com/germany.html.
  • Johann, Ralph. Cross-Cultural Management: The Case of the DaimlerChrysler Merger. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2008.
  • Jones, Gareth R. and Charles W. L. Hill. Essentials of Strategic Management. US: Cengage Learning, 2011.
  • Jones, Gareth. And Charles Hill. Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. US: Cengage Learning, 2009.
  • Peng, Mike W. Global Strategy. US: Cengage Learning, 2008.
  • Porters Five Forces. Rivalry among existing firms in the industry. http://www.portersfiveforces.org/rivalry-among-existing-firms-in-the-industry/.
  • Businessmate. What are Michael Porter’s 5 forces. http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=9.
  • Roy, Daniel. Strategic Foresight and Porter’s Five Forces: Towards a Synthesis. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2011.

Sample of Methodology in Research Paper

  1. Introduction

The methodology part of the study tries to pinpoint the procedure or set of actions used at each stage of the investigation to arrive at the research’s results and conclusions. Kothari (2004) defines research methodology as “a way to systematically solve the research problem”. He further opines that research methodology may be comprehended as “a science of studying how research is done scientifically” (Kothari, 2004).

Thus the research methodology for the present study would include the data collection methods which would entail the description of the collection of primary as well as secondary data as well as the reason for doing so; the research design which refers to the inductive and deductive reasoning methods along with the qualitative and quantitative techniques for the purpose of the study. The instrument of data collection would also be derived in this section by the help of which the data has been collected – be it an interview, or a questionnaire or a focus group study. Again, the sample selection is the next activity to be undertaken since the data has to be collected from the respondents for further probing. Thus the sample has to be selected depending on various factors like nature of study, intended results, convenience, paucity of time and funds etc. Once the data has been collected the data is analysed with the help of various tools and techniques. Ideally, the step of data analysis consists of the ways in which the data would be put to test so as to derive the intended results. The tools of data analysis may be software or manual. In this case, SPSS would be used to analyse the data with the help of various tests predetermined by the researcher. Lastly, the ethical considerations that the researcher has to keep in mind while working with the sample population would be enumerated followed by a summary of the section.

Sample of Methodology in Research Paper

  1. Data Collection Methods

Primary Research

When a study is performed to reveal original data, it is known as primary research. To do this a new research plan has to be created which consists of collection of data, input of data and ultimately the production as well as analysis of the ensuing results.

Whereas “Original data performed by individual researchers or organizations to meet specific objectives is called primary data” (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007).

The major advantage to primary research is that the data collected for the study is solely meant for that very study and thus much more precise and “reliable” as well (Das, 2005).

Primary data exhibit comprehensive information and an explanation of the terms mentioned. The method of collection and approximations, if there are any, are detailed in this case (DJS Research, 2005).

But the main drawback is that the procedure may be that it might prove to be highly time consuming and an expensive affair.

Secondary Research

Secondary Research is the research conducted on the basis of the “data that has been previously collected by some agency or person for some purpose and are merely compiled from that source for use in a different connection”. So, data collected by someone else when utilised by another person, is called secondary data as well. Primary data transforms into secondary data when the person who has collected the data uses the already collected data by him/her for some other reason other than for the reason it was originally collected (Roy Choudhury & Bhattacharya, 2006).

Secondary research is generally beneficial when the researcher has time constraint or financial constraints. The investigator is unable to directly collect the data and also when absolute accurateness is not mandatory.

In the case of the present study, the data collected by other researchers as well as the quantitative and also the qualitative approaches have to be overviewed so as to have added knowledge on the area.

In the context of the present study, secondary data will also serve the purpose to some extent – especially while assessing the available literature to reinforce that the present study is not a rather stand alone study on the subject that has yielded the results but available literature also focuses on and has reference to similar topics or has much to offer on the topic of the present study. It will also help them assess industry figures and the like.

  1. Research Design

A research design refers to coming up with the most efficient plan of collecting the information needed for the research (Kumar, 2008). A research design also describes the specification of methods and processes for collecting the information needed. It is the framework for performing the study. Since the research objectives and questions have been formulated, so the research design is to be prepared subsequently (Gupta & Gupta, 2011).

Among the approaches taken in the course of the study, the reasoning based approaches will lend more credibility as to why the courses of action have been in a certain format.

Inductive Reasoning

Taylor, Sinha and Ghoshal (2006) have noted that inductive reasoning is “a process that begins with a specific case and draws from it a conclusion of wider or more general reference”.

Deductive Reasoning

Ghauri and Gronhaug (2002) define deductive reasoning as an approach wherein it is a logical process of deriving a conclusion from a known premise or something known as true.

Again, for the purpose of the study, a combination of quantitative as well as qualitative approaches has been taken. While the qualitative approach consists of scaling technique in terms of letting the respondents choose only one answer for the questions given within the questionnaire, the quantitative approaches, on the other hand, would comprise specific tools like correlation.


Correlation, as noted by Wild and Diggines (2009), refers to methods that deal with simultaneous occurrences in variables.

  1. The Instrument for Data Collection

The instrument of data collection chosen is a questionnaire.


“Questionnaire, whether it is called a schedule, interview form, or measuring instrument, is a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents.” (Malhotra, 2004). Normally, a questionnaire is a type of a package used for collection of data that may also comprise other things.


Interview is an instrument of data collection wherein the researcher interviews the respondent in person to gather the required information. Again, the success of this method depends on the merits of the interviewer since he or she may also note other non verbal reactions of the respondents. However, any bias should be avoided while making such judgments. Also, this is time consuming and costly for research.

In the context of the present study, a survey Questionnaire seems to be the best way to collect information. Since the present study entails gathering information on aspects that are highly qualitative in nature, so, Questionnaire has been used as an instrument. Focus group has been avoided due to paucity of time and other allied resources. On the other hand, the Questionnaire would enable the present study to hand over the same to the prospective respondents so that they can come up with their versions of answers for the questions at their convenient time.

The questionnaire open ended questions, i.e. the answers have to be given by the respondents in their own words. The Questionnaire has been devised in this manner since focus group interviews are not possible and neither is complete enumeration is feasible, so in order to better comprehend the various processes entailed in the study, it seems better to collect answers in the own language of the respondents. The open ended questions would serve to enlighten the study the particularities of the experiences as well as the difficulties faced by the respondents in the light of the context of the present study. Moreover, this may help to suffice the lack of focus group interviews and other in depth qualitative techniques associated with data collection. Also, since the study is related to motives of individuals, so it is best to go for open ended questions.

  1. Sample Selection

Target population for the primary data comprised the general aspirants of the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT).

For secondary data both internal and external sources has been used. The secondary sources stem majorly from the reports, books available in libraries as well as in the market, journals and other publications that focus on same or similar topics as the present study is based.

The questionnaire would be mailed to the respondents electronically since the study focuses on Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT), given that the respondents are in dispersed geographical locations, so the best format seems to be to use the same channel of information sharing. However, a low rate of response may be a drawback compared to personal communication. A total of 100 people were chosen to participate in the research, since the rate of response, as mentioned before, has been apprehended to be low, given that the questionnaire has been mailed to the responders electronically.

  1. Data Analysis

Sampling Technique

Due to its inherent simplicity as well as the time constraints for the completion of the research, “Non Probability Judgmental Sampling Technique” would be used for the study.

Non-probability sampling is a sampling method that is not based on probability wherein the probability of selection of each sampling unit is not known (Aggarwal, 2010).

Measurement Tool to be Used

Aptitude Test

Aptitude tests provide a high level of predictive validity (Hardison, Sims & Wong, 2010). The authors have noted that the aptitude based models like AFOQT offer a high level of unbiased as well as effective way of mapping the life experiences of the candidates as well as measure scores that tally with how good or badly is a student likely to fare on the job for which the test is being taken (Hardison, Sims & Wong, 2010).

Predictive Validity

Elmes, Kantowitz and Roediger (2006) have noted that predictive validity relates one measure of behavior to another criterion measure. The connection between selection test results and future performance on the specified job given to the applicant, on the other hand, is known as predictive validity of a selection test (Hardison, Sims & Wong, 2010). Thus it is clear that the score taken on the basis of the performance of the candidate on the job is later correlated with that of the test score in order to find that the predictive validity of the test holds good or not.

  1. Summary

The current research focuses on the Air Force Officer Qualifying Test (AFOQT) and those who want to take it. Thus the research methodology adopted for the research has been tailored to suit the specific requirements. While stress has been given on both quantitative and qualitative approaches, inductive reasoning has also been undertaken. A survey questionnaire has been devised to be sent to responders, comprising questions on gaining insights on Air Force Officer Qualifying Test and also the aspirants who want to become Air Force Officers in course of time.

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  • Ghauri, P. & Gronhaug, K. (2002). Research Methods in Business Studies: A Practical Guide. New Delhi: Doris Kindersley India Ltd.
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  • Gupta, M. & Gupta, D. (2011). Research Methodology. New Delhi: PHI
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  • Das, N. (2005). Statistical Methods. Calcutta: M. Das & Co.
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21 Most Daring and Dangerous Places to Swim

21 Most Daring and Dangerous Places to Swim

You will most certainly conceive of a variety of areas for swimming that are unbelievable. The pools, the sand, or even the amusingly small inflatable pools. I’m going to tell you about ten locations in this post, though, where you can absolutely, by no means, ever, swim. About why? And I’m trying to be healthy with you. They’re also extraordinary and fascinating.

1. The Dead Sea

The Dead Sea is home to the world’s largest mineral concentration. This abandoned lateral-moving change fault functions over the tectonic plate boundaries involving the Arabian and African plates. It stretches from Turkey’s East Anatolian Fault into the Red Sea Rift’s northern finish, only off Sinai’s southern coast. That really is as soon as the water System Which joins the Top of Jordan River, the Sea of Galilee, and also the Reduced Jordan River Concerns a Conclusion.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places to Swim and Why

Even though you’ll find little perennial flows below and round the Dead Sea, forming swimming pools and also quicksand pits across its sides, even the Jordan River may be the sole considerable water resource. There are no rivers which can be discharged into the whole world.

2. Sinkhole of Eagle’s Nest

If you were to stick next to Florida’s Eagle’s Nest Sinkhole somewhere, you will actually believe it was just a pool. Nonetheless, if you were to plunge under, you’d see the tube that leads to underwater tunnels, and spaces that are wider than soccer fields.

300 and 10 feet below the earth is the lowest point. In 1999, because of 10 suicides, it was really closed down. It reopened in 2003 so individuals would only prohibit themselves from jumping into underwater caves for whatever reason. This already infamous and truly spooky sign is home to the caves.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


3. Well of Jacob

On a humid summer’s day, Jacob’s Well beckons, calm waters attracting divers and swimmers alike. It’s a common spot for anyone keen to freshen up and avoid the burning Texan sun, situated not a long way from Wimberley. But not far below the shimmering shore, secret dangers lurk, rendering this a risky place to take a dive. A captivating sight, with a mouth 12 foot in diameter that is impossible to avoid, is the bright spring waters bubbling up from Cypress Creek. But Jacob’s Well is deep, with a massive vertical drop that plunges some 30 feet below, hitting an average distance assumed to be about 120 feet until its corridors and tunnels angle away. For curious cave divers, this makes it a common spot, but the risks cannot be overlooked. Lives have been lost here, and it is a risky pursuit, particularly for those skilled in visiting such areas, to travel under the soil.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


4. Bubbly Creek

Bubbly Creek is an area of the River Chicago where you will be told not to swim in. The explanations for this are various. The volume of filthy drainage that can find its way into the river is mainly among them. For eg, much of the lake has been the subject of discarded beef, fecal matter, and other repugnant material. This stuff started to degrade after some time, contributing, ostensibly, to the bubbles that occur in this pool. The lake has now been so poisonous that it is difficult for fish and other animals to survive in it. While you’re looking for a decent spot to surf, you may want to look for a quiet beach somewhere. The river in Chicago is not the place to be.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


5. The Strid

The Yorkshire Strid can actually be the most fun place on this chart, and the least dangerous. It seems to belong to a postcard. But unfortunately, in fact, it has taken many lives. For any people who are unfortunate enough to fall in, it allegedly has a one hundred percent fatality rate. For those currents that dump you in, The Strid features a harsh mix of swift, invisible currents, and underwater rocks.

” Professor Carolyn Roberts of Gresham College’s Department of Environment, London, said that “It destroys the shape of the river, which is affected by the existence of the rocks over which it tumbles, because of its geomorphology,” and that “Vortices in the flow will catch bodies under the water near the bed or edges, while turbulence will make anyone very easily unconscious. It’s not a safe spot to play. Most of all, you might see someone carelessly wanting to cross the river and falling into the stream when it seems too non-threatening. Given the slippery moss common along the rivers bordering the cliffs, such an error is lethal and quickly made.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places to Swim and Why


6. Dam of Hoover

Yeah, you probably shouldn’t be floating in any dams. In either event, swimming at sites like the Hoover Dam is actually a crime worthy of imprisonment, because your swimming might wind up arresting you. Yet the more serious explanation is that, since it is not a regular body of water, there are super intense waves. It’s a body of water created by humans to generate energy. Does this look like a protected place for you to swim in?

A Welsh tourist called Arron Hughes was detained only a couple of months ago for swimming across the Hoover Dam. Authorities claimed he was the only one they met who endured such a swim, while most were sucked into ingestion. Yet, including bell-mouth spillways, there are also other things you might be drawn into as well. Don’t they all look like a nice trip around here?

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


7. Lagoon of Blue

In Buxton, Derbyshire, the Blue Lagoon has a ph level of 11.3, which does not indicate much to you but that you’re a chemist. Ok, a major alarm sign should be the fact that bleach has a ph rating of 12.6. It has an idyllic blue hue from caustic compounds in the underlying stones, on top of being a body of water that is similar to being chlorine than it is to being something that can pour out of a tap. Despite signage informing citizens of the risk, individuals could not stop themselves to dip into their lovely waters. To continue to stop people from bathing in it, it went so terrible it had to be dyed-black. That’s probably a smart concept, if you think about it, that a lot of other sites on this page might take a lesson from. Abandoned vehicles, abandoned livestock, and industrial waste is still housed in the lagoon.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


8. Island Reunion

Reunion Island, a French nation renowned for its surfing in the Indian Ocean, has recently become the shark attack city of the globe. Ok, there are 8.28 assaults per million individuals on Reunion Island. An unprecedented number of 39 assaults have been seen on the island, 19 of which were deadly. Although no one knows precisely why the island has been such a shark hotspot, it has been estimated that it was attributed to the formation of a coral reef that attracted more fish that provided the shark’s food.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


9. Thailand’s Gulf

You will encounter some creatures in the sea that can induce you to tears. The box jellyfish is one of these species. This tiny creature can deliver such a strong sting (estimated at a height of about eight inches in length) that those with whom it comes into contact can die from the pain. The biggest thing is that you are surprised when you are in the pool. If you suffer serious paralysis, you would possibly drown at that stage. Unfortunately, the Gulf of Thailand is overflowing with these small jellyfish. If you’re attempting to swim in those seas, we recommend you cover yourself with the right garments.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


10. Playa Hanakapiai

The Hawaiian seashores are green and with good cause. Their beaches are the sandy shores of the water, coral reefs, and sometimes horrific sunburns. Although often they are host to spectacular rip tides as well. On this resort, Hanakapiai Beach in particular, there were around 80 fatalities. If your plan is to stop being dragged out of the water, there is something to remember.

Try not to be one of those citizens trying to conquer the waves. The waters they shelter under can be dangerous as they crash. For eg, one person noticed two children pulled out of the water. Their dad had leaped in to rescue them when they were being painfully pulled down the beach. Fortunately, the beachgoers were able to signal to local aircraft for support, and the kids were saved. Not all the water is as stunning as Hanakapiai Shore, next on our list.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


11. The River Ganges

You can keep away from the Ganges River if you ever find yourself in India looking for a place to swim. Owing to the rapid industrialization of India, the Ganges has been quite contaminated, that more than 600 kilometers of it equal to 300 and 72 miles are ‘ecological dead zones’ where life cannot support itself. Try not to make your life be you. At an alarming pace, agricultural and human waste is being streamed into the water. The river contains more than 70 times the acceptable limit of hazardous chemicals in locations and 3000 times the healthy volume of fecal coliform in locations.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


12. Australia’s Beaches, Both Northern and Eastern

Remember when Marlin and Dory were in the jellyfish area in Finding Nemo? But there are deadly box jellyfish (along with blue-ringed octopus, cone shells, scorpionfish, crocodiles, and stingrays) and you’re not an anime fish, this is a somewhat simplified idea of what the coastal waters of Australia are like.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why


13. The Amazon Basin

And Hank Hill’s small urethra couldn’t rescue him from the Amazonian candiru (or toothpick fish). The fish is not drawn to urine (as previously thought), and it is tiny enough to, um, penetrate a male, according to systematic experiments. One such occurrence was published in 1997, and the assertion was thoroughly confirmed in the Animal Planet episode “River Monsters.”


Top 20 Most Dangerous Places to Swim and Why

14. Boiling Lake in Dominica

The submerged fumarole’s shore temperature is between 185 and 197oF, as seen in the Angry Planet episode “Across the Boiling Pool,” but the central region of the lake hasn’t been tested so no one can get there safely. However, since the water is obviously heating, flaunting your sweet cannonball talents is definitely a poor idea.


Top 20 Most Dangerous Places to Swim and Why

15. Lake Vostok

Under the Antarctic, Lake Vostok is an oligotrophic subglacial lake. Ice core evidence will show whether life has persisted in isolation for 15 to 24 million years, as well as the possibility of life in subsurface water on other worlds. And if scientists locate ice-loving fish below, you won’t be able to swim there since the average water temperature is -3oC.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why

16. Berkeley Pit

The Berkeley Pit in Butte, Montana, was once an open-pit copper mine that has been contaminated by acidic water, which is highly oxygenated and leaches heavy metals from the surrounding soil. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead are among the chemicals on the Superfund registry. Three hundred and forty-two geese were found dead in the Pit in 1995, their internal organs burned by the water.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why

17. Any Exploding Lake

The only documented bursting lakes in the world are Lake Kivu in Rwanda and Lakes Monoun and Nyos in Cameroon. A volcanic rock dam sits atop a magma pool, releasing carbon dioxide and methane into the water, creating this kind of lake. A large pocket of poisonous gas will periodically “explode” from the water (a limnic eruption), killing 37 people in 1984 at Lake Monoun and suffocating 1700 people and 3500 livestock in 1986 at Lake Nyos.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why

18. Lake Karachay

Lake contaminates you in Soviet Russia. Mayak, radioactive waste storage, and recycling plant used this remote lake in the Ural Mountains as a hazardous disposal site from 1951 to 1968. The lake was covered with concrete blocks between 1978 and 1986 to keep irradiated soil from moving. In 1990, the radiation level was high enough to give a person a fatal dose in less than an hour.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why

19. Just about Any Body of Water in China

In China, a nationwide water shortage has resulted from heavy traffic (both on roads and on waterways), industrial waste, and unregulated fertilizer usage. Toxic green-blue algae bloom is currently affecting nearly every large lake and river in the world. Greenpeace analyzed water in 25 places and discovered that 20 of the tests contained amounts of nitrogen and nitrates that were unacceptable for human use. The quantities were so high that the water couldn’t even be used to water plants or for commercial uses.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why

20. Nyiragongo Crater’s Lava Lake

280 million cubic feet of molten rock won’t make for a nice game of Marco Polo, but you can possibly roast a marshmallow from a distance of several hundred yards. One of the eight volcanoes in Africa’s Virunga chain holds the world’s largest permanent lava bath. A group of scientists and adventurers survived a trip to the lake’s rim last year, which is documented in this breathtaking photo essay.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places to Swim and Why


21. Laguna Caliente

Volcanoes wreak havoc on water. Laguna Caliente (located in the summit crater of Poás Volcano) is potentially the most acidic body of water on the earth, with a pH of “slightly below 0.” The rain that comes in the city has an average pH of 2.0.

The Ganges not only carries a lot of radioactive waste, but it also serves as the last resting site for 40,000 cremated bodies per year. So, essentially, you’d be floating in a sort of sludge made up mainly of dead people. Data usually confirms that this triggers a more notable incidence of cancer and gastrointestinal disorder in people living by the river. Worst of all, people ignore the notices because the water is spiritually holy, claiming that bathing in it cleanses them of previous sins.

Top 20 Most Dangerous Places To Swim And Why

And you’ve been alerted now. Are you really taking the chance of diving into some of these bodies of water?

Development of Export Market in USA for Lucozade Brand

Development of Export Market in USA for Lucozade Brand

Table of Contents

I. Introduction

The paper details plans for the development of the US as an export market for Lucozade. As a product, it is currently in production in the United Kingdom, and as a brand it represents a slew of sports drinks and related drinks owned by GlaxoSmithKline, the global pharmaceutical giant. The emphasis on the sports benefits of the drinks, as an improvement to water and as an aid to intense sports activities that is able to provide adequate hydration and nutrition even to the most demanding and most gifted athletes. It is worth noting that as a product range, the Lucozade brand benefits from insights and inputs from hardcore research undertaken on behalf of the brand by universities, sports coaches, practitioners, and nutritionists, under the so-called Lucozade Sports Science Academy. Moreover, the brand is well-known for its marketing tagline, which is about replacing the lost energy from intense physical activities making use of Lucozade. That said, officially the classification is that of Lucozade being a soft drink brand (Answers Corporation 2013; GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies 2013). In the United States, which is the chosen export market, key competitors in the segment of sports hydration drinks where Lucozade is bound to compete includes Gatorade and Powerade, with the former being the heavyweight brand with the greatest mind share and market share not only in the United States but in many parts of the world, and with the latter being the key competitor brand offered by Coca Cola (Carpenter 2000; Howard 2008; Competitor Group 2013).

It is worth noting that those three brands mentioned above remain dominant in the world when it comes to sports drinks, with Lucozade in particular being the most dominant brand in the United Kingdom in terms of both value sales and sales by volume. Annual sales for Lucozade is estimated at 260 million British pounds. Its presence in other markets, on the other hand, is hampered by strong competition from Gatorade and Powerade, even as the overall market for sports drinks is forecasted to reach US 55 billion dollars by 2018, indicating a large opportunity for Lucozade to get a substantial piece of that pie from exporting activities. The US being a large and lucrative market for sports drinks, this export development plant for that export market has potentially great value for the brand and for GlaxoSmithKline. Other statistics meanwhile bolster the case for exports as a lucrative activity given that there is a relatively low penetration level for sports drinks in general, at just 50 percent, even as the segment grew by 64 percent for the five-year period from 2007 all the way to 2012. By product category, all three categories, hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic drinks experienced sustained growth in volumes and dollar value over that given period, with prospects for growth also promising moving forward to 2018 and beyond (Companies and Markets 2013). In the US, moreover, Gatorade and Powerade together account for virtually the entire market for sports drinks with Gatorade owning 69 percent of the market, and Powerade owning 30 percent of the market. Both companies spend heavily on advertising and marketing activities centered on getting star athletes to endorse the brands and products. The trend towards sustained growth in the sports drink sector is confirmed in the long term, in contrast to the general decline in soda consumption in the United States over the past several decades (Daily Mail Reporter 2013). Other estimates put the market share of Gatorade at an even larger percentage, 75 percent, with Powerade taking 20 percent and the rest of the players in the sports drink market taking up the remaining 5 percent, reflecting the overall dominance of Gatorade in this segment. Growth estimates for the period from 2007 to 2012 according to one source was pegged at 21 percent, with the growth in the market from 2013 all the way to 2017 estimated to reach 53 percent. 2012 total sales for sports drinks in the US in 2012 was estimated at US 6.3 billion dollars (Haderspeck 2013).

Development of Export Market in USA for Lucozade Brand

The United States market is also special for several other reasons relating to the positive uptake of sports drinks in that country in general. It has been noted for instance that the growth in sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in the United States for the observation period from 1985 all the way to 2005 showed that about 40 percent of the growth can be attributed to the rise in consumption of sports drinks. Sports drinks are taking up the cudgels for sodas by capturing the shift away from sodas within the time period, especially among young people in the US. Meanwhile, the percentages of people drinking sports drinks also increased, as well as the volumes consumed during the same time period. Sports drinks were observed to be growing at the third fastest rate in the US as early as 2006, and by other estimates had total sales of US 7.4 billion dollars by 2008, with volume growth pegged at 17 percent for the period between 2004 and 2008 (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2012, p. 2).

In terms of marketing, on the other hand, in the United States there has been a shift in trends towards offering more benefits other than the fundamental electrolytes and hydration replenishment, towards offering nutrition benefits as well as low-calorie, low-sugar and no-sugar offerings or diet offerings. There has also been a marked movement in advertising towards targeting younger people and children, with activities in advertising to those age groups being marked and increasing for the biggest sports drinks brands, and most notably Gatorade. Sports drinks are being marketed to young people as replacement for sodas, and in this way the sports drinks companies in the US are hoping to catch the movement away from sodas towards alternatives such as sports drinks. These trends also represent opportunities for Lucozade as developments plans for the US as an export market for sports drinks are firmed up (Haderspeck 2013; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; BNP Media 2011; Skerrett 2012; Cohen 2012; Sharkey et al. 2012)

II. Marketing Mix (7 Ps)

A. Product

            It is clear from an investigation as to the nature of the US market for sports drinks that it is a hyper competitive space dominated by two very large players with marketing savvy and world-dominant brands in Gatorade and Powerade. Lucozade has brand equity and its large traction in the UK markets, and that can be leveraged to a certain extent, but it is also clear that exporting Lucozade into the US requires tweaking the product aspects of the marketing mix to be able to leverage on the insights gleaned from the moves and strategies of existing players in the US space. In the literature this translates to looking at those product attributes that have been shown to e a hit with the consumers, and to craft product aspects of the marketing mix that cater to substantial segments of the market, as already determined by Gatorade and by Powerade. Clearly it is not an easy task given that  the umbrella brands in the US have been devolved into several product lines each catering to specific market segments. Gatorade has diet and nutrition-packed product attributes that clearly cater to specific parts of the market, and as an outsider it will be difficult for Lucozade to export its successful lines to the US without thought to how potentially different the UK formulation and the US market tastes are. The development o the US market as an export market for Lucozade therefore entails undertaking the appropriate market research to find out which segments of the population respond to the current product attributes of the marketing mix for Lucozade product lines, and what different segments of the target markets are most lucratively served by tweaked product attributes of the marketing mix. For instance, the literature notes that low-calorie and no-calorie offerings, as well as offerings with distinct nutrition value propositions, are a hit with an expanding market in the US. Those same product attributes can be considered for new products or for existing products to be exported from the UK to the US (Haderspeck 2013; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; BNP Media 2011; Skerrett 2012; Cohen 2012; Sharkey et al. 2012).

            The export marketing literature also points to shaping aspects of the product aspects of the mix so that they conform to the preferences of the target export markets, as a general principle. There is a need for instance to incorporate product adaptation as an important factor in an export marketing strategy, as a prerequisite to exporting success. This means in the US case hurdling regulations with regard to product ingredients, apart from making sure that the target export markets are a fit with the Lucozade products being introduced. This means market research and testing whether or not the current product attributes are  a match with what the target market desires (Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008, pp. 69-77; Noonan 1998, pp. 80-192; Linton and Donnelly 2009, pp. 11-19). 

            Now adapting the product aspects of the marketing mix partly entails, for Lucozade, following the positioning of the many product variants of Gatorade for instance and finding out the target markets for those differing product variants, focusing on the low-calorie and no-calorie aspects for instance, as well as the corollary diet aspects of the product aspects that appeal to certain segments of the target export market. (Haderspeck 2013; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; BNP Media 2011; Skerrett 2012; Cohen 2012; Sharkey et al. 2012; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008, pp. 69-77; Noonan 1998, pp. 80-192; Linton and Donnelly 2009, pp. 11-19)

B. Price

            In the presence of dominant market players in Gatorade/PepsiCo and Powerade/Coca Cola, tweaking the price aspects of the marketing mix entails the price of products with similar market positioning as the Lucozade offerings, unless Lucozade opts for either premium or mass market positionings, in which case price will either be above or below the price points of the different Gatorade and Powerade products. Given the similarities in the market positioning of the various variants of Lucozade in the UK markets and the Gatorade and Powerade variants in the American market, the price aspect of the marketing mix will be at parity with existing prices of competing products from the major US players (Haderspeck 2013; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Answers Corporation 2013; GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies 2013; Carpenter 2000; Howard 2008; Competitor Group 2013).

C. Place

            Distribution aspects of the marketing mix need to be well thought out and managed. Given the maturity of the US market for all kinds of goods and services there are mature and robust distribution options that can be considered. The literature tells us that the distribution channels in place for sports drinks and for various other consumer goods in the US markets are sophisticated as well, and so in this regard the place aspects of the marketing mix for Lucozade can be tweaked and rethought as the exporting activities start and evolve through time. The goal is to achieve parity in distribution with the key players in this space, Gatorade and Powerade. This means saturating the distribution channels where the two dominant brands are present, and achieving parity in placement with those two big brands (Haderspeck 2013; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Answers Corporation 2013; GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies 2013; Carpenter 2000; Howard 2008; Competitor Group 2013).

D. Promotion

            The dominant players rely on time-tested promotions activities as essential aspects of its marketing mix for its brands. They rely on celebrity endorsers, invest heavily in traditional media advertising, are present in large communal sporting events, and have large and sophisticated presences on the Internet in general and in social media in particular. This needs to be matched by Lucozade in the different fronts where Gatorade and Powerade are present, in order to be considered and perceived as being in the same league as these major players (Daily Mail Reporter 2013; Haderspeck 2013;  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Answers Corporation 2013; GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies 2013; Carpenter 2000; Howard 2008; Competitor Group 2013).

E. People

            As  a demanding market for exports, there needs to be an organization on the ground to manage all of the exporting activities for Lucozade, and that can mean piggybacking on the existing organizational resources and manpower from the US subsidiary and partners of the parent firm GlaxoSmithKline. Given the relative novelty of sports drink marketing for the parent firm in the US market, marketing staff needs to be complemented by marketing personnel with experience in the field, as well as logistics and supply chain personnel with exposure to the supply chain dynamics in the sports drink market in general (Daily Mail Reporter 2013; Haderspeck 2013;  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Answers Corporation 2013; GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies 2013; Carpenter 2000; Howard 2008; Competitor Group 2013)

F. Process

            Supply chain processes, including logistics, are the most important processes in the activities tied to exporting Lucozade to the United States market. This means putting an emphasis on making sure that distribution channels processes are in sync with the processes tied to getting the product into the American shores and into point of consumption shelves (Daily Mail Reporter 2013; Haderspeck 2013;  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Answers Corporation 2013; GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies 2013; Carpenter 2000; Howard 2008; Competitor Group 2013).

G. Physical Evidence

            The physical evidence aspect of the marketing mix for Lucozade exports in the US are the physical points of consumption at the end of the distribution channels. This will include retail shelves of various kinds, where the products will be displayed and consumed. This is ideally at par with the physical evidence aspects of the marketing mix for Powerade and Gatorade (Daily Mail Reporter 2013; Haderspeck 2013;  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Answers Corporation 2013; GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies 2013; Carpenter 2000; Howard 2008; Competitor Group 2013).

III. Supply Chain

            There are massive macro-trends in global food supply chains that factor into discussions relating to the supply chain for beverages and in particular sugared drinks and sports drinks. For instance, in the developed markets of the United States, high income levels translate to more sophisticated supply chains that cater to a larger variety and diversity of offerings in terms of beverage types and brands, imported as well as locally made. There is a ready infrastructure in the supply chain that can accommodate the activities of Lucozade entering the US market, is the take from the literature (Gehlhar and Regmi n.d.). A critical analysis of existing academic literature on supply chain excellence in the US shows that Lucozade can also benefit from the gains made by existing distribution channels, such as Wal-Mart, for instance, in achieving supply chains that are technically excellent and yield the best returns for third parties like Lucozade exporters and for itself (Lee 2004). Lucozade can also, in part, achieve better returns and lower costs for its supply chain activities tied to exporting the product to the United States by leveraging insights from emerging supply chain disciplines such as the green supply chain, which essentially focuses on reducing wastes and costs along the exporting supply chain for the product (Beamon 1999).

IV. Distribution

A. Channel Strategy

            As an initial channel strategy, the recommended strategy is to prioritize from among the key distribution channels that are in use by the key players in the US market to achieve maximum reach for the target markets for Lucozade, while keeping within the distribution cost budgets. This means choosing among the different distribution channels and going with the channels that will yield the greatest impact on placement. One notes from the literature that the major players have established distribution channels that leverage the strengths of certain large retail channels, such as Wal-Mart and the large chain of convenience stores in the US. This can be the preferred distribution channels and the gist of the initial channel strategy for Lucozade (Daily Mail Reporter 2013; Haderspeck 2013;  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Beamon 1999; Lee 2004; Gehlhar and Regmi n.d.; Haderspeck 2013)

B. Distribution Costs

            One can have an idea of ideal distribution costs from the cost structure of the dominant brands in the US, and working back to determine distribution costs as a percentage of total revenues, for instance, or as a percentage of gross margins. Working back to impute exporting related costs as well, Lucozade distribution costs can also be made to be at par with the distribution costs for Gatorade and Powerade in the US market. This is to achieve parity in terms of competitiveness of price, while being in line with expected gross margins and profits for selling sports drinks in the US (Daily Mail Reporter 2013; Haderspeck 2013;  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013; Kim, Cavusgil and Zou 2009; Seyoum 2008; Linton and Donnelly 2009; Beamon 1999; Lee 2004; Gehlhar and Regmi n.d.; Haderspeck 2013).

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  • Companies and Markets 2013. Gatorade, Powerade, and Lucozade continue to dominate the sports drink market. CompaniesandMarkets.com. [Online] Available at: http://www.companiesandmarkets.com/News/Food-and-Drink/Gatorade-Powerade-and-Lucozade-continue-to-dominate-the-sports-drink-market/NI6897 [Accessed 11 May 2013]
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  • Daily Mail Reporter 2013. Maker of Gatorade nixes controversial ingredient from popular sports drink recipe in response to consumer ‘rumblings’. Mail Online. Online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2268539/PepsiCo-Inc-Gatorade-maker-nixes-controversial-ingredient-popular-sports-drink-recipe.html [Accessed 11 May 2013]
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  • Linton, Colin and Donnelly, Ray 2009. The Official CIM Coursebook: Delivering Customer Value Through Marketing. Butterworth-Heinemann.
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  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2013. Consumption of Sports Drinks by Children and Adolescents. Healthy Eating Research. [Online]. Available at: http://www.healthyeatingresearch.org/images/stories/her_research_briefs/RRSportsDrinkFINAL6-2012.pdf [Accessed 11 May 2013]
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Death Race and Fast and Furious Synopsis in Action Vehicles

Death Race and Fast And Furious Synopsis in Action Vehicles

Death Race Synopsis

Death Race is a visually spectacular adventure film that heavily relies on automobiles as the primary mode of transportation. The audience will see cars driving in many of the scenes in the film, and the key plot revolves around the position of cars. The value of vehicles and their action roles are so spectacular that the audience may wrongly conclude that the vehicles are more interesting than the characters. The story of the film mostly revolves around a jail system in which private employers abuse the inmates owing to their own celebrity. The owner of the movie publishes the pay-per-view live show of a race in which the cars are packed with lethal, dangerous and state of the art weapons. The race continues for three days in a closed loop; like tunnel map in an island and any driver (prisoner) who will win five consecutive races will be granted freedom by the jail administration. In the quest to get freedom, the situation is do or die for the prisoners and every prisoner wants to beat that last flag line and as a result a ruthless use of lethal weapons take place during the race. That’s the reason this race is known as Death Race and the owner of the jail uses this title for the show of the pay-per-view. People find it immensely amusing during because they get a chance to see real people dying and ruining each other with weapons and cars (Corman et al.).

Death Race and Fast And Furious Synopsis in Action Vehicles

Roles and Details of Vehicles

The cars are specially designed by the prisoners themselves and they can take help from the outside world too. Every driver can choose a navigator because the importance of navigator is very cardinal in a Death Race where the drivers have to be vigilant about different angles, weapons and cars. The reward for the races is set by the owners of the jails. A prisoner can get complete freedom without any conditions if he wins five death races. The movie is full of action and every prisoner tries to build his car with maximum output and packed with most lethal weapons available. The importance of shields in the cars taking part in the death races cannot be denied because the car has to stand out the most throttling bursts of the bullet and even short range missiles that can totally bounce the car up and down (Cotter 156). The main hero of this movie, Jason Statham is the character around which the action revolves. In the downsizing economy, he tries to provide his family by working very hard and he promises his wife that he will try his best to fulfill her and their beloved new born daughter’s needs, but the movie takes a new turn when some person out of the scene comes and mysteriously kills his wife and also tries to murder him but fails. The police comes at the spot and arrests the hero who is totally covered with blood; thinking that he is the main culprit behind the killing of his wife. He ends up having an unjust sentence in the island prisons which is famous for death race, fights and very difficult circumstances. The hero tries to pass the jail period with peace but there are some fights. The details of the stunning car of hero of the movie Death Race are Frankenstein’s Monster- 2006 Ford Mustang GT with Supercharged 4.6L V8 and state of the art Ford exhaust system. The car is equipped with rear and front end guns, nickels option, in order to damage the tires of the rivals and Frankenstein, uses these nickels very productively during the above-mentioned action sequence.

Action Sequence

The action sequences are full of thrill and the role of crisis the main driving force of these action-packed sequences throughout the movie. The best action sequence is when the hero goes into the final race with the rivals and the situation is “do or die” for everyone (Lichtenfeld 334). Before the final race, it is shown that the odds are against him and his navigator because the rivals have more advanced cars which are full of weapons. Similarly the administration of the jail is also not with him and track is unfriendly. On the set day, the race starts and all the cars, fully shielded packed with weapons start to move. The main rival cars start firing the high class bullets everywhere and most of the competitors of the Death Race go dead within a very short time. The car of Jason Statham is also damaged because of the brutal fire but the navigator and the hero manage to get through different locations. The music behind this sequence is really fast and thrilling aligned with the sounds of gun shots and there are other sounds of cars exploding, abuse, dialogs and laughs of the drivers and much more. The camera positioning is also aligned with the action thrill orientation of the sequence but the main focus of the sequence is the car of the hero. The camera takes a bird’s eye view of the track and when the race starts, the camera starts focusing the characters that are sitting inside the cars. The climax of this action sequence is when the main rival of Frankenstein starts firing his car from rear side and the shield of Frankenstein’s car is completely damaged. The navigator is completely in panic when the hero takes a u turn and moves the car in front of the rival’s car and starts firing and compels the rival in a close loop. There is smoke everywhere in the scene and at once, the rival finds himself in front of a wall and the car collapses and he is badly injured. At once the masked man who is the main character of Death Race movie comes and ruptures his neck; the race carries on in which Frankenstein has the lead. The role of the vehicles is the primary depiction in this action sequence because the sustaining pressure and brake system of Frankenstein’s car facilitated him in this scene. 

Fast And Furious Synopsis

Fast And Furious is another stunning and very colossal American street racing film that is based on the street car racing rivalry among many groups and people. Produced by Vin Diesel, Fast And Furious focuses on hardcore car racing through-out the movie sequences and the role of characters are overrun by the importance and cardinality of the cars in this movie (Hill 90). The plot starts when FBI. agent Brian (who is a very important character in the movie and later gets into car racing competitions) is trying to track down a drug dealer Arturo (John). While searching he goes to David Park and finds that Dominic (Vin Diesel) who is the hero of this movie and commonly famous for his best modified cars and racing techniques, is beating up David by pulling him from his ankles and throwing him out of the window. Later, Brian, David, and Dominic participate in a car race that is eagerly anticipated by many residents of the region. Brian enters the race in a modified Nissan Skyline GT-R R34 from the Impound Lot and Garage, while Dominic, who is known for his state-of-the-art machine-oriented vehicles, enters the race in a modified 1970 Chevrolet Chevelle. The reward of this race is a free chance to smuggle heroin alongside American-Mexican border which will definitely give a lot of money to the winner and a chance in the future to take part in more races to get money and fame. Dominic wins this race by bumping David’s car. David loses his control. Using his connection in the FBI he arrests another driver in order to make his place in the team. From this point onwards, the tug-of-war starts and the main character start searching best available cars so that they can win the races (Moritz et al.).

Action Sequence

The action sequence focuses on a short race between Dominic and David. The scene starts when both the cars come at one place and Dominic is looking very confident. David’s car is apparently looking more thrusting and powerful. At the start of the race, Dominic says to David that during his high school he used to drag here; the destination is a quarter-mile way and on green signal the race will start. The confusion is apparently prominent on David’s face. As the race starts, the camera focuses on tyres of the cars and Dominic’s car elevates into the air from the front and when it touches the ground the speed is so much that David is totally lost about the happenings in the sequence. The race carries on and David manages to get one on one with Dominic and the cars are roaring with high-speed engine (Tobias 41). The scene takes a new turn when the signal goes red and a train is shown coming from the left side of the track. The drivers are not aware of this fact and they are completely lost in beating each other but the scene is depicting that there will be problem very shortly. There is absolutely no music behind the scene, just the voices of the cars and now the sound of train also starts to come in the scene. The thrilling moments are on their peak now because the drivers have started to notice that there is a train moving in the direction and the signal has gone red. At the same moment Dominic notices that there is some thrust problem in the engine and the signs of confusion start to manifest on his face too. The cars are roaring and running at full speeds and it seems that Dominic was aware of the timing of the train because there is a little smile on the face. The confidence in the performance of the cars is really huge because Dominic uses the NOS and increases the speed of his car. The train is rushing towards them. David is totally unaware of what is happening and he also completely pushes the accelerator and waits for the good to happen. At once, the train and cars are about to collide when in a nick of a second both the cars touch the train track and pass the train without collision. This scene is really breathtaking and can attract the attention of the viewers. The immense role of vehicles is shown in this short scene which is of around three minutes. If the cars were not able to pass the extra speed limits, both the drivers would have died. The scene does not end here. After the passing of train, both the actors look at each other with happiness on their faces, but Dominic’s car crashes in a truck because he was looking at David. The car bounces off in the air and crashes on the ground and the scene ends. The action sequence did the minimum use of the music and focused on the main theme of the scene paced with thrill and drama. The main climax of the scene is when the train is coming from the side and both the actors see the train and get feared of the possible collision. The scene takes a new turn at the end when it seems that both the actors have escaped the train collision but instead of the escape, the car of Dominic get crashed into a truck that was coming from the right side of the road. The scene ends here with bouncing of the car in the air and the other actor is not shown .The expression of the drivers (actors) are focused by zooming the camera on their faces and when Dominic smiles, this gives a sign that he is happy for the other actor too about his escape from the collision. It was initially a kind of friendly race with minimum rivalry feeling among the drivers and the main thrill was of the train collision. The use of music is minimum because the terrific sound of cars is heard at the back of the scene and this gives the natural flow to the scene and the viewers get the impression of reality and optimum thrill while watching (Winarni).

Works Cited
  • Corman, Roger, Paul Bartel, Robert Thom, Charles B. Griffith, Ib Melchior, David Carradine,
  • Simone Griffeth, and Sylvester Stallone. Death Race 2000. Los Angeles: Shout Factory, 2010. DVD.
  • Cotter, Tom. Dean Jeffries: 50 Fabulous Years in Hot Rods, Racing & Film. Minneapolis:
  • Motorbooks, 2009. Print.
  • Hill, Katrina. Action Movie Freak. Iola: Krause Publications, 2012. Print.
  • Lichtenfeld, Eric. Action Speaks Louder: Violence, Spectacle, and the American Action Movie.
  • Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2007. Print.
  • Moritz, Neal H, Gary S. Thompson, Erik Bergquist, David Ayer, Rob Cohen, Vin Diesel, Paul
  • Walker, Michelle Rodriguez, Jordana Brewster, Rick Yune, Chad Lindberg, Johnny Strong, Matt Schulze, Rule Ja, Ted Levine, Ericson Core, and Peter Honess. The Fast and the Furious. United States: Universal Pictures, 2001.
  • Tobias, Ron. 20 Master Plots: And How to Build Them. Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer’s Digest Books,Print.
  • Winarni, Tuti. The Real Pleasure of Freedom in Justin Lin’s Fast And Furious 5 (2011): An
  • Individual Psychological Approach. Diss. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 2012.
  • Print.
Death Race


  • Jason Statham
  • Joan Allen
  • Tyrese Gibson
  • Ian McShane
  • Natalie Martinez

Music by       

  • Paul Haslinger
  • Studio Relativity Media
  • Cruise/Wagner Productions
  • Impact Pictures
  • Distributed by           Universal Pictures
  • Release date(s)          August 22, 2008

Fast and Furious


  • Vin Diesel
  • Paul Walker
  • Michelle Rodriguez
  • Jordana Brewster
  • Music by  Brian Tyler
  • Cinematography
  • Amir Mokri
  • Editing by      
  • Christian Wagner
  • Fred Raskin

Effective Leadership in Different Departments within Hardees Situation and Opportunity Analysis in Global Marketing

Effective Leadership in Different Departments within Hardees Situation and Opportunity Analysis in Global Marketing

Executive Summary

Hardees is a large international food corporation that was established in 1960. The group has launched restaurants in many countries and expects to increase its market share by joining the fast food market in Australia.  Its products include the uniquely produced burgers, fries, and beverages. It faces stiff competition from other similar global firms such as McDonald. The company has sustained its competitiveness in the market because of its major strengths that include innovativeness and production of different products from competitors. Even though, the firm has a smaller market share compared to its major competitors, it has opportunities to expand its market. This is because it focuses on drawing the right audiences. For instance, it attracts many youths through its brand image. Many youths consume fast foods because they consider it cheap. Additionally, effective leadership in different departments within the restaurants enables the firms to deliver high quality services and merchandise.

Hardee’s is one of the top companies that deal with fast foods in the United States. The company was commenced in the year 1961. It operates in about 30 states in the United States with a total of approximately 1900 restaurants. Its main strategy that enables it to stay competitive in the market is being innovative. This procedure aims to improve the quality of its goods while also promoting premium growth. Ice cream, biscuits, and burgers are among the company’s offerings. The company’s executives are now considering expanding into the Australian fast food sector. McDonalds, KFC, and Hungry Jack are the main competitors in the world (Hardee’s Food System, 2013).

Effective Leadership in Different Departments within Hardees Situation and Opportunity Analysis in Global Marketing

Company Structure, Capabilities, and Resources

Different layers of managers make up the company’s corporate framework. The CEO, owner, and Chief Operating Officer are among the highest management positions. Restaurant supervisors, change managers, and assistant managers in multiple divisions make up the lower management ranks. The organization is often focused on career specialization, with workers doing various tasks. They have separate workers for preparing, serving, and receiving orders, for example. Because of the corporate framework, the firm is able to carry out aggressive sales strategies because administrators have more influence over the restaurants. The company’s services provide an efficient human development department and restaurants that are concentrated in a small geographic region. The firm’s tendency to control geographic markets is aided by this clustering. It also allows it to profit from greater economies of scale in the small areas. Other services include the restaurant chains, which offer a variety of casual food options such as burgers, tacos, and a variety of soft drinks. Many franchisees, such as Boddie-Noel Enterprises, have also contributed to the company’s development (CKE Restaurants, 2012).

Products, Markets, Distribution, and Supply

Hardees is the world’s largest fast food corporation. Burgers, tacos, desserts, and chicken sandwiches are among the company’s offerings. It is one of the top firms in terms of market value. This is due to the fact that it has 475 restaurants and over 500 franchisees. Around 1% of the global demand is controlled by the group. While this proportion may seem to be insignificant, the market share is growing year over year as revenues increase. The company’s revenues have risen by around 61 percent since it was established, according to an overview of its sales. The majority of the company’s clients purchase “take-out” foods. As a consequence, it changed the packaging in order to meet the needs of these consumers. For example, it debuted a new coffee cup with a top. Furthermore, the firm found that revenues have been declining in recent years as a result of consumer complaints regarding the elevated cholesterol and fat content of the company’s foods. As a result, unlike most of its competitors, the company continued using palm oil. Foods became more common as a result of this.

Hardee’s profitability increases because of its effective distribution and supply systems. The distribution system is very advanced. For instance, whenever sales are rung up the company decrements its inventory according to the recipe. The company has an intelligent controller that helps in the circulation of the inventory order, and submits it automatically to the firm’s network. The mangers then approve the inventory at the company’s network. The managers can then forward the information to the manufacturers and distributors to ensure that all the restaurants receive supplies in time. The firm has about three manufacturing and eleven distribution plants that helps it to make about 250 to 1500 deliveries per week in each restaurant (Hardee’s Food System, 2013).

Competitive Environment and Industry Situation

The company faces competition from other large similar firms. It still faces competition from some of the most popular fast food companies such as McDonalds, KFC, and Hungry Jack in Australia. Most of companies produce similar products meaning that Hardees will face threat of substitute products from other companies. However, the company’s focus on innovation will enable it overcome this threat. Additionally, Hardees competitors focus on take-home foods in Australia. Hardee’s will also stay competitive because of its high quality packing services. Even though the industry faces the food substitution challenges, Hardee has many advantages that entail providing new meal experiences to its customers through its innovativeness (Young & Kaufman, 1997).

The company will also face some difficulties when entering the Australian market due to various barriers. For instance, there is a high concentration of restaurant businesses in the country. This will give the company a hard time during its early establishment (Chandrasekaran &Tellis, 2008). However, the company’s global brand recognition will enable it to complete effectively against the small saturated and new businesses in the market. In addition, it will be difficult to compete against the big companies such as McDonalds that have already acquired larger market shares in the country. However, Hardee’s focus on high quality and differentiated products will enable it to acquire larger shares because of its potential to increase its customer’s loyalty. The firm will face less competition from the new industries than penetrate the market. This is because the high costs of entry and capital will be an obstacle for the new firms (Zou &Cavusgil, 2002). Besides, the new entrants will be hindered by the strict government regulations that face the food industry. In addition, the market has stiff competition because consumers have low costs of shifting to other better firms. If a company loses its customer’s loyalty, it will be easier for them to start buying similar products from other restaurants. Furthermore, it will be easier for Hardees to operate in Australia because suppliers have low bargaining strengths in the industry. This is because the shifting costs from one supplier to another would not be very high. In addition, there are many suppliers in the country. The industry also faces the fast food stigma challenges in Australia just like other countries because of health campaigns against the fast foods (Levitt, 1985).

Synthesis of Strengths Relative to Potential Opportunities

Hardee has several strengths that will give it opportunity to expand the market for its products in Australia.  One of the strengths includes its differentiated products such as the Charbroiled burger that other firms do not produce. This will create an opportunity to attract customers to the firm’s unique products (Craig & Douglas, 1996). In addition, the company focuses on improving the quality of its products through the sate-or-art technology. This will increase the company’s opportunity to increase it consumer’s loyalty in the new Australian market.  Moreover, the company’s brand recognition will give it a growth opportunity in the new state (Datamonitor: CKE Restaurants, Inc., 2010). Through its high quality and unique products, Herdees possesses popular brands globally. This will make it attract more customers faster. Additionally, the company’s brand image makes it very attractive to youths. This is also an opportunity to expand its market in the new country because many youths consume fast foods. In addition, the company has an extensive hospitality. This will also help in the consumers’ attraction.  The other strength includes its effective marketing strategy. For instance, the company invests in the advertisement of its products. It also gives a nutrition description of its products within its menus. The marketing strategy will increase the company’s opportunity to increase its brand recognition in the new country. Hardees management styles such as specialization will help in ensuring the smooth operation in Australia. However, the company may experience some threat that may hinder it from realizing the opportunities. One of the threats includes competition from its rivals. The other threat may include political and legal barriers that also affect comparable business.

Strategic Fit Evaluation and Opportunities Identified and Justified

The corporation would be able to understand its prospects in Australia. This is due to its inventiveness, which aids in increasing product differentiation (Aaker & Damien, 2010). When penetrating new industries, the firm has used creative tactics that have led to its growth. In addition, the organization has sufficient capital to meet consumer satisfaction in the new environment. Human capital are one of the most important assets, since they add to the company’s competitiveness. The company’s management have good communication abilities, which will allow them to ensure that the company achieves its aims by aligning the firm’s operations with its objectives. Furthermore, since it employs motivated employees, the firm is capable of providing high-quality services to its customers in the new country. Since the organization insists on meeting their desires, the employees are rather self-motivated (Kotabe & Kristiaan, 2010).


Hardees is one of the most well-known restaurants in the country. The company’s assets, such as its well-known brand and exclusive items, would help it break into the Australian fast food industry. Since it has ample money to carry out all of the required operations, the organization has many opportunities to develop in Australia. Furthermore, the firm should coordinate its operations with targets that are critical to a company’s performance.

  • Aaker, A. and Damien, M.(2010). Strategic Market Management, Global Perspectives.Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Kotabe, M. and Kristiaan, H.  (2010). Global Marketing Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Chandrasekaran, D. &Tellis, J. (2008), Global Takeoff of New Products: Culture, Wealth or Vanishing Differences? Marketing Science, 27 (5), pp.844-860.
  • CKE Restaurants. (2012). CKE Restaurants SWOT Analysis, 1-7. Retrieved from: http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=61f5e533-539b-4f0a-b5ab-a5e9099a8c64%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=16
  • Craig, C. & Douglas, P. (1996). Responding to the challenges of global markets: Change, complexity, competition and conscience. The Columbia Journal of World Business. Volume 31 (4): pp 6-18. Retrieved from: http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=61f5e533-539b-4f0a-b5ab-a5e9099a8c64%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=16
  • Datamonitor: CKE Restaurants, Inc. (2010). CKE Restaurants SWOT Analysis, 1-8. Retrieved from: http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=61f5e533-539b-4f0a-b5ab-a5e9099a8c64%40sessionmgr115&hid=16
  • Hardee’s Food Systems. (2013). Franchise opportunities. Retrieved from: http://www.hardees.com/company/franchise
  • Levitt, T. (1985). The Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 61, pp.92-102. Retrieved from: http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=61f5e533-539b-4f0a-b5ab- a5e9099a8c64%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=16
  • Young, M. V., & Kaufman, B. E. (1997). Interfirm wage differentials in a local labor market:The case of the fast-food industry. Journal of Labor Research, 18(3), 463-480. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214007093?accountid=45049
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Effect of Destructive Leadership Practices In an Organization

Effect of Destructive Leadership Practices In an Organization

Table of Contents

  • Rationale and Research Questions
  • Literature Review
  • Research Methodology
  • Research Philosophy
  • Data Collection and Sampling
  • Ethical issues
  • References

Leadership is often referred to as the reciprocal relationship between a leader and its followers. A leader principally employs social influence for the purpose of persuading followers and tries to attain the overall goals of the organization (Hogan and Kaiser, 2005). Majority of the available literature about leadership have principally focused on the characteristics of an effective or good leadership (Higgs, 2009). Such studies have led to romanticisation of leadership and hence it is believed that leaders are one of the pillars of an organization. As a result, leaders are now considered as the saviours of an organizational crisis (Bligh et al., 2007). However, most of the authors have ignored the darker side of leadership. The darker side of a leadership is characterised by the activities of a leader which forces organizations to a situation, where they can experience a stagnation or decline. Moreover, in such cases leadership is not at all considered as a constructive or the best option to satisfy the organizational goals (Mellahi, Jackson and Sparks, 2002; Whicker, 1996). There have been several terms used to describe the darker side of leadership and destructive leadership is one of them. Einarsen et al. (2007, p.208), defines destructive leadership as the systematic and repeated behaviour by a leader, supervisor or manager that violates the legitimate interest of the organisation by undermining and/or sabotaging the organisation’s goals, tasks, resources, and effectiveness and/or the motivation, well being or job satisfaction of subordinates.

Effect of Destructive Leadership Practices In an Organization

This study aims to uncover the effect of destructive leadership practices in an organization. The major reason behind carrying out a research on this topic is that, there are only few studies which have examined the impact of destructive leadership in an organization. In order to get deeper insights about the area of concern, the study will evaluate how destructive leadership negatively impacts certain factors of organizations. The study will analyse how destructive leadership causes bullying and affect the performance of employees. The study is therefore considered as extremely important and can be highly effective in the field of research pertaining to leadership in organizations. Moreover, this study will have the ability to show the relationship between employee satisfaction and leadership styles. Hence, the study also has high value in the field of business research.     

On the basis of the objective of the study, the following are the research questions which will be answered by adopting suitable methodologies. The research questions are as follows: –

Q1. How leadership styles are important in deciding the success of an organization?

Q2. How destructive leadership abuses the employees emotionally?

Q3. How destructive leadership harasses the employees of an organization? 

Q4. How destructive leadership affects the performance of the employees?

Literature Review

This section of the study will carry out a review of the literatures to be used for the study. It will mainly highlight the views or the theories proposed by the scholars previously. In this context, the literature review will be carried out with the help of books, journal articles, newspaper, magazines and authentic electronic sources. However, the main focus will be on the academic journal articles.

There are only few research papers which has emphasized on the darker side of leadership or the ill effects of destructive leadership (Tepper, 2000). On the other hand, more research can be found about effective or constructive leadership (Kelloway, Mullen and Francis, 2006). According to Ashforth (1994), traditionally, research pertaining to leadership principally focused on how effective leadership help organizations to grow or what are the elements of a good leadership. Moreover, there was an assumption that ineffective leadership only reflects about the leadership absence. However, with the course of time, it has become evident that ineffective or destructive leadership is not only a mere absence of leadership, but also includes several other factors.

In a recent study carried out by Schilling (2009), the author found that leaders at times portray behaviours that try to satisfy personal goals rather than the organisational goals.  The author also found that the behaviour of the followers and existing situation also plays a major role in the dark side characteristics. According to a study carried out by Zapf, Einarsen, Hoel and Vartia (2003), around 5-10 % of the employees are subjected to bullying and around them 80 % of the employees believe that bullying cases mostly involves managers or leaders in the role of the alleged bully.       

According to Flood et al. (2007), destructive leadership sometime causes interpersonal conflicts, as well as a major cause of harassment, bullying, organization violence and employee abuse. Moreover, such leadership style also creates violence in the workplace.

In the similar manner, Waldron and Kassing (2011) stated that with the practise of destructive leadership, leaders tend to mistreat and humiliate the followers. In addition, leaders also portray abusive behaviour. The author also believes that such actions create apprehension in the minds of the employees which results into lower employee productivity. Hence, from an overall viewpoint it can be concluded that destructive leadership negatively impacts the organization.          

Research Methodology

The methodology to be adopted for a study plays a crucial role in successfully carrying out a project. The research methodology of a project is also important because it is responsible for creating the pathway of the research. This section will shed light on the research approach, and the data collection method. In addition to this, the research methodology section will also shed light on the respondents and sample size.  

Research Philosophy

The principal objective of the study is to uncover the impact of destructive leadership in an organization. The study also has some sub questions that tries to establish direct relationship with some elements of employee satisfaction. In order to complete the project successfully, it is essential to consider the philosophical context of the research. Research philosophy is defined as the way by which information pertaining to the area of study will be collected, stored and analysed for the purpose of gaining meaningful and useful information. The research philosophies are broadly classified into two groups namely positivism and interpretivism. In positivism approach, researchers believe that reality is stable and can be uttered from the viewpoint of an objective. In addition, researchers also believe that the reality can be recorded with the research instruments such as surveys and experiments (Tobin and Joseph, 2006).

On the other hand interpretivism approach is considered to be an anti positivism approach. It is also known as phenomenological approach. The researchers following this approach believe that the behaviour portrayed by human beings highly depends upon their observation of the prevailing situation. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) emphasizes on the fact that interpretivists believe that the nature of human being is greatly influenced by their interpretation of the given situation.   

Hence, considering the characteristics of both the approaches and also taking into account the research questions, the positivism approach has been selected for this study. Moreover, it also fits with the research design.    

Data Collection and Sampling

Data collection is probably the most important activity of a research project. On the basis of the data collected from the market, the analysis is carried out which in turn helps in concluding the project. In this context, the objective is to know how destructive leadership negatively impacts an organization and its employees.

In order to address this question, the study will depend on both primary as well as secondary data. The sources of secondary data are academic journal articles, books, and authentic online sources. On the other hand the primary data will be collected directly from the market. The study will have two respondent groups which are employees and managers of different organizations. The reason behind choosing two groups is that deeper insights about the area of concern can be gathered.        

The sample size for the employees will be 20 and the sample size for the managers will be 10. The sample size is kept small in order to ensure less ambiguity. The sampling will be done on the basis of simple random sampling as this provides equal opportunity of getting selected to every potential respondent.

As per the research approach, the data collection instrument will be a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire is a research instrument that includes a series of questions. The biggest advantage of using a questionnaire is that it allows researchers to collect data in an organized manner and also saves time. Hence, it is believed that a questionnaire survey will help to satisfy the objectives of the study.   

Ethical Issues

The study has also considered several ethical guidelines. Some of major ones are stated below: –

  • The study will be designed in such a way that none of the participant gets physically or emotionally hurt.
  • The respondents can leave the study any moment without giving prior notice.
  • The study will seek consent from the concerned authority and the participants will be also made aware about the purpose of the study.


  • Ashforth, B., 1994. Petty Tyranny in Organizations. Human Relations, 47, pp. 755−778.
  • Bligh, M., Jeffrey, K., Pearce, C., Justin, J. and Stovall, J., 2007. When the romance is over: Follower perspectives of aversive leadership. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 56(4), pp. 528-557.
  • Einarsen, S., Aasland, M., and Skogstad, A., 2007. Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, pp. 207-216.
  • Flood, M., Gardiner, J. K., Pease, B. and Pringle, K., 2007. International Encyclopaedia of Men and Masculinities. New York: Psychology Press.
  • Higgs, M., 2009. The Good, the bad and the ugly: Leadership and Narcissism. Journal of Change Management, 9(2), pp. 165-178.
  • Hogan, R., and Kaiser, R., 2005. What we know about leadership. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), pp. 169-180.
  • Kelloway, E. K., Mullen, J., and Francis, L., 2006. Divergent Effects of Transformational and Passive Leadership on Employee Safety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(1), pp. 76−86.
  • Mellahi, K., Jackson, P., and Sparks, L., 2002. An Exploratory Study into Failure in Successful Organizations: The Case of Marks & Spencer. British Journal of Management, 13, pp.15-29.
  • Saunders, M., Lewis, P., and Thornhill, A., 2009. Research Methods for Business Student. 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
  • Schilling, J., 2009. From ineffectiveness to destruction: A qualitative Study on the Meaning of Negative Leadership. Leadership, 5, pp. 102-128.
  • Tepper, B. J., 2000. Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), pp. 178−190
  • Tobin, P., and Joseph, K., 2006. The Use of Stories and Storytelling as Knowledge Sharing Practices: A Case Study in the South African Mining Industry. [pdf] Available at: <http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-07302006-065725/> [Accesses 16 April 2013].
  • Waldron, V. R. and Kassing, J. W., 2011. Managing Risk in Communication Encounters: Strategies for the Workplace. London: SAGE.
  • Whicker, M., 1996. Toxic Leaders. When Organizations Go Bad. Westport: Quorum Books.
  • Zapf, D., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., and Vartia, M., 2003. Empirical findings on bullying in the workplace. London: Taylor & Francis.

Prejudice and Discrimination in People with Disabilities

Prejudice and Discrimination in People with Disabilities

According to a webpage sponsored by cliffnotes.com, Prejudice and discrimination have been rampant in human history. Prejudice is the irrational and unchanged attitudes and people’s opinions held by individuals of one group towards another, while discrimination is the behaviors shown towards another group (“sociology”).Experiencing prejudice entails dealing with beliefs about a given group of people and cultural practices. Whether positive negative, prejudice in these forms are always preconceived. Discrimination is negative forms of prejudice, which is practiced by those who want to deny to people opportunities that they believe need not be given the same treatment as other people. Judging by historical records, America has embraced people with two kind of disability; children with disability who invoke pity, and heroic figures who have beaten all odds to overcome the plight of disability to interact with into their inaccessible environment. An example of a person with disability who has experienced prejudice and discrimination is Sylvia Flexer Bassoff. She uses crutches and wears leg brace.

Prejudice and Discrimination in People with Disabilities

Many positions needed candidates to have a physical test even though the position required little physical exercise in 1935, when Frank Roosevelt was campaigning for the Works Progress Administration, in order to exclude people with disabilities. “In my naivety, I thought I’d graduate from Drake Business School and they’d all come for me,” she says as tears well up in her eyes. Any graduates received work that were not as good as mine, and they did not begin to be as good as I was. Finally, I was employed by the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, which only hired people with disabilities. It was a huge blunder. I have no idea what to do.” Sylvia has seen frequent inequality in public education, in addition to limited job openings. Earlier this year, the courts affirmed the refusal of public transportation agencies to transport persons with disabilities. Furthermore, immigration rules restricted people with disabilities. According to Longmore and Goldberge, several states attempted to sterilize, prohibit marriage between, and imprison persons with disabilities in order to prevent the “unfit” from reproducing. While private health care is accessible to individuals with disabilities, it is not necessarily affordable, even when it is, it does not include expenses such as assistive technology or occupational therapy. Medicaid and Medicare are crucial in delivering health services to individuals with disabilities in the United States. Despite the progress of the Persons with Disabilities Education Act and many young people with disabilities, the number of university and college graduates and applications for people with disabilities are well below national levels. People with disabilities are also discriminated against by both private and public employees. Furthermore, the federal government’s medicaid programs do not have adequate benefits for people with disabilities who choose to live. In the meanwhile, insufficient state and private support for homes for people with disabilities has placed the promise of adequate housing for this minority community in doubt. The bulk of them are unemployed and unable to manage the skyrocketing housing rents in recent years.

The Disability Experiences

Sylvia narrates that America’s public health systems are largely focused on prevention of disability rather than preventive health services for people with disabilities. There has been limited accessible and health services that are affordable to people with disabilities. In addition to this, there bureaucratic and inefficient government programs, environmental factors which render people with disabilities in poor health. As a result, studies have shown that people with disabilities are two and a half times likely to be diagnosed with diabetes and other chronic diseases. Sydney Case who is a well-known disability activist, fears going to her gynecologist “part of the problem is the lack of proper equipment, such as lower examination tables” Case continues “but by far the worst cause of dread is the lack of sensitivity.” (Qtd. In New mobility 13) most nurses who attend to them are insensitive to the plight of people with disability.

Today in as much as people with disabilities have opportunities to live independent lives and be productive in their communities, they still face enormous challenges that could lead to the emergence of state supported institutions. They experience poor educational opportunities, high poverty levels, and high unemployment and over dependence on public benefits have been a hindrance for people with disabilities from achieving independence and living productive lives. In addition to this, property values and average rent prices have gone up in recent times, aggravating the problem of affordable and accessible housing in United States for people with disabilities. Studies show that more than one million children with disabilities by late 1968 were still barred from public schools. Sylvia says that “more than half of all the children with disability attending public schools were barred from accessing services and settings provided with children without disabilities.” These children would sit idly and then opt to dropping out of school.


Massive progress have been made since the mid-1960’s as statistics show, more than six million students who have disabilities have received special educational services. Most of them are educated in neighborhood schools and in regular classrooms with non-disabled students. Graduation rates, as well as employment rates for youth under individuals with disability education act (IDEA), have doubled than those of adults with similar disabilities. Sylvia recalls of the amendment of public law in 1997 that specified that every student with disability should receive an individual education program tailored to their specific needs. The law challenged parents to challenge school districts to provide adequate education programs, and also giving them the right to appeal decisions by school systems through mediation and court hearings.

States and federal governments are turning away towards financing community based services and are supports that are giving a chance to people with severe disabilities to live in regular communities. These are less costly than larger institutions.

Housing amendments act of 1968 brought a relief to people with disabilities since now they could access housing. Consistent with section 504, the law prohibited discrimination and denial by landlords or property owners to make reasonable accommodations, which included changes in policies, rules, services or practices that were necessary for a person with disability to use and enjoy a living.

Sylvia is happy that the Cranston-Gonzalez national affordable housing Act of 1990 created section 811 that is supportive housing for persons with disabilities. The new program recognized the right of people with disabilities to live in the less restrictive environments possible and the role of mission-driven non-governmental organizations in developing, owning and operating supportive housing.

The Disability Rights

The 1990 American Disability Act marked the pinnacle of advocacy for individuals with disabilities. This law prohibits prejudice against persons with disabilities and ensures that they have equal access to both public and private accommodations. Mr. Justin Dart Jr., Sylvia remembers, was a strong advocate for this act and for the needs of persons with disabilities in general. She follows Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which was signed into legislation in 1973. This provision states that no individual with a disability shall be discriminated against because of his disability, nor should he be disqualified from participating or refused benefits because of discrimination on any federally funded initiative or operation. Disabled people’s interests were upheld under this statute, and they were granted self-respect as full citizens of community. Americans with disabilities experienced inequality in educational schools, accommodation, jobs, and transportation, as well as fair access to medical services and public buildings at the time this provision was signed into law. In other nations, such as the United Kingdom, the Disability Prejudice Act of 1995 was enacted following years of campaigning for disabled individuals. Discrimination against persons with disabilities in housing, schooling, and transportation became unconstitutional as a result of this.

Sylvia is a part of the Americans with Disabilities Alliance. This campaign calls for the rights of people with disabilities to achieve inclusion in the workplace and in daily events that once excluded them. Sylvia remembers their campaign staging a national rally in 1977, demanding that the rules for Section 504 of the Recovery Act be signed.


Millions of disabled persons in the United States have untapped economic and social opportunities. Stereotyping and restrictive practices also made it more difficult for people with disabilities to obtain jobs, health services, schooling, and housing. People with disabilities must be encouraged to be self-sufficient and active members of their families. For disability rights movement to be effective, they need to marshal and build broad-based grassroots movements, which can unify individuals to a common purpose. This will be important in changing perception about people with disabilities and to reinforce support within the disability community itself.

Work Cited
  • Prejudice and Discrimination retrieved from CliffsNotes.com. <http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/topicArticleId-26957, articleId-26886.html>. On 14 Apr 2013

Origins and Causes of Wildfires

Origins and Causes of Wildfires

It does not require a lot of effort for a wildfire to start and man and nature can be responsible to instigate a cause. History has recorded a couple of devastating fires some caused by carelessness.  They often begin unnoticed but later spread to shocking distances. Wildfires can move at a speed of 23 kilometers per hour. Sometimes wild fires can cause the weakening of the soil leading t yet another environmental disaster. It is because of this reason that the state and local governments are very strict in averting such fires because of the potential human loss and property damages that may result.

A wildfire will occur when an ignition source gets into contact with a host fuel and the existence of sufficient heat in the environment raise the host fuel to its ignition temperature. The point of origin is described as the place where sustained combustion happens, where the ignition source meets the ignited material. The ignition source physical remains are most likely to be found here. After the ignition, the fire progresses outward from the focal point. The spread of the fire will initially be circular until the fire is influenced by factors such as wind, slope or fuels.  The first burning phase exhibits slow spread and low intensity, this area in the proximity of the point of origin is the specific origin.

Origins and Causes of Wildfires

The lower intensity characterizing this area there is presence of unburned material.  When the fire comes under the influence of the affecting factors, it spreads with disproportionate rates and intensities. The area is described as the general origin area.

Weather, topography and fuels mainly influence a wildfire. Wind, humidity and temperature are components majorly affecting this phenomenon. Wind exacts the greatest effect in fire spread and strength. Wildfires generally enlarge in the direction of the wind blow. Humidity affects the likelihood of ignition directly and the intensity of the fire, temperature on the other hand has a preheating effect on the fuels .with changing weather patterns, wind for instance can significantly influence burn patterns.

Topography constitutes terrain, slope and aspect. Fires will spread faster in higher gradients than lower ones due to the effect of up-canyon winds and daytime upslope (Simon, 1996). Terrain affects the rate and intensity of a wildfire. Barriers can have the effect of slowing a wildfire down or causing a fire. Documentation should account for the relevant slope, the terrain, the aspect and elevation features in the general origin area.

Wildfires are associated with the burning of vegetation.  There is vegetation fires like brush fires that burn open land with low-lying vegetation such as Twigs that dry out easily burn fiercely and spread quickly.  Another vegetation fire is grass fires which burn at 60miles per hour they spread quickly than forest fires they burn intensely but briefly and the temperatures are moderately low.  Forests fires are huge but slow due to the little undergrowth but when the fire reaches the tips of the trees and ignition results the intensity soars.

The worst fires are the Australian eucalyptus fires where the Trees are rich in flammable oil such that the area around them is explosive. The hot air rises and new air is sucked in. eventually combustion results and a fire results propelled by conducive weather conditions. These fires are caused by different factors that lead to the initial ignition and the weather conditions that contribute to the spread of the fire (Porter & Reeder, 2012).

Causes of Wild Fires

A wildfire can start because of lightning activity. In investigating wildfires where lightning is suspected to be the cause, lightning occurrence maps are used. Lightning damages or scars on trees, shrubs or poles depict lightning causes.

Wildfires may ensue from campfires. In these situations, the fire, which is, kindled for the purpose of warmth, light, ceremonial purposes or cooking may ignite a blazing fire. The likely parties involved are campers, fishermen or hunters.

Smoking is a prominent cause of fires; such a cause is ignited by the use of cigarettes, pipes, matches, cigars. Etc. cigarettes do not automatically cause fires, as they are highly dependent on the weather conditions. The probability of its ignition is relative to the humidity and the wind strength. The relative humidity must be less than 22% the cigarette must have at least 30% of glow and where the tip is likely facing down and wind orientations will majorly contribute to its ignition. Investigators analyze these pieces of evidence carefully to ascertain if the cause was maliciously perpetrated.

The burning of garbage, slash, stubble and other debris burning can cause wildfires. Mostly such fires start from dumpsites and thereafter gain momentum to spread on the neighboring vegetation, when it is windy, burn barrels may be carried by the wind and the material transported aerially starts a fire in another destination far from the origin. Reports from witnesses are the most likely way to ascertain debris burning as the cause of the fire.

Holdover fires that surface from a brushing activity even after some period can result in a wild fire outcome. This happens when fire s escape and rekindle after being ignited some tile back.

In some cases, willing perpetrators may cause wildfires. This category is arson or incendiary. In this case, the people responsible carefully plan to instigate a fire for the purpose to result in property damage. Ignition devices such as matches or cigarettes are commonly found and the fire has multiple origins.

The sources that ignite the fire may be direct, hot set where an open flame is involved and thus a fire starts immediately or it may be of time delay where the source has a timer before triggering. In these investigations, thorough interviewing of witnesses is done to ensure that the people liable are brought to justice.

The operation of agriculture equipment or some sort of machinery in logging, construction, harvesting, land clearing, mowing etc can also cause wildfires. The ignition is because of the fuel or lubricants flaming up, friction in the parts that later sparks heat, mechanical breakdown, strong strike with a solid barrier or also by the conductive transfer of heat in the machine heating it up to its ignition temperatures (Simon, 1996).

Wildfires can be caused by the ill operation of railroads. Such fires are affected by the maintenance of the railway track, which may hinder the smooth rolling of the trains; the maintenance of the train itself is also a factor. In the investigations, the investigators must acquire the data recorder referred to as the “black box” to analyze the train’s physical condition and the potential cause of the breakdown.

Children that may be experimenting with fire out of mere play and/ or curiosity may start a wild fire, the ignition sources are mainly matches, fireworks and lighters and the origin places are the playgrounds, footpaths or homes. The responsible children may be referred to juvenile authorities or intervention programs.

Sometimes a fire cannot be grouped in the standard causes and thus falls under miscellaneous causes. Under this group, we have fires caused by; power lines where the wire conductor fails or there is hardware faulting. Sometimes these fires are influenced by the actions of humans or animals.

Fireworks causing fires are grouped as aerial handheld explosives and such fires are prominent in holiday periods when teenagers and adventurous young adults are home.

Blasting which incorporated flaming debris can cause wild fires, such occurrences can be at laboratories where experiments are undertaken and the reactions result in explosions.

Firearm use can cause wildfires since it contains black powder or steel core ammunitions that can effectively ignite a fire. These happen mostly in areas of target shooting forests where hunting is done.

Spontaneous combustion is caused when fuels self heat and as a result ignite immediately if the surrounding conditions support combustion or a chemical process producing sufficient heat for ignition.

Flare stacks from industrial, commercial or military flares may ignite fires. The flames burn at a flaring 3600 degrees due to the composition of the matter involved and their following reaction.

When the rays of the sun are directed to a point of severe heat by glass or by shiny objects, the resultant refraction bends the rays of the sun, a similar phenomenon of the magnifying glass, the concave end may which results in the focusing of the sunlight rays may ignite a fire that may slowly spread to hazardous degrees.

Sometimes firefighters may deliberately start a fire in the areas ahead of the fire as a tool to start the death of the fire since with that the fire will not find medium to spread.

To determine the cause of a wildfire, investigators must investigate the general origin area looking for physical evidence. They walk the area in that particular perimeter in search of burn pattern indicators and mark it with appropriate flags. The area where the fire made its initial run is the area with the cleanest burn and has the “u” or “v” pattern.

On both flanks, lateral fire spread indicators depicting lesser fuel consumption mostly bound it. As soon as the initial run is identified, the next step will be to enter the general origin area from the part farther away from the suspected point of origin since burn indicators are more visible on this art. The only exception is if the investigation is on a steep slope and entering the original area from the head becomes a hazard for the investigator.


The main objective of a fire investigation is to determine the cause, the origin and the responsible party in the fire. Successful fire investigation is an essential component in averting future unwanted wildfires. The careful and correct determination of wildfire cause and origin is necessary for successful fire investigations.

Effective investigative procedures, which detect the initial attack, can accurately isolate the causes of the fire and save evidence that may be of value giving a great contribution to civil, criminal or administrative actions. The investigation’s starting point should be at the reported time of fire and at the focal point from where it is alleged to have started.

Investigators must clarify upon first respondents to a fire such as firefighters and law enforcers the weight of their responsibility in safeguarding the origin area and any other related evidence as they are the most vital link in the consequent area and cause determination.

Investigations are the result of proper planning, organization and the ability expects foresee issues before they emerge. Facts and considerations are laid out before the process of investigation is initiated.

In the investigation, the first responder’s role is essential, they safeguard any available evidence, consequently it is an asset to have well trained first responders to effectively pinpoint and protect the place of the fire origin. They then make it easier for the origin and cause investigators to have a start of hence ensuring that the first responders develop by giving them training should be a priority (Fire & Emergency Training Network, 2007).

The investigators must be equipped with knowledge of the principles of fire behavior. The knowledge on the ability for a fire to be recreated will assist the investigator in identifying and accurately depicting fire direction indicators. It is essential for an investigator be equipped with proper training to enhance this understanding.

At the scene, the investigators must follow safety related measures and policies established by the federal and local government. Scene examinations should not be a sole undertaking, at least two investigators or accompaniment with a fire fighter should be there to assist each other incase either gets injured.

Wildfire investigations have its own embedded hazards, to avoid this investigator must be aware of the areas where the fire is still active or is still burning. Flammable fuels and cell phone use should be avoided as a rekindle of a fire coupled with wind direction change may spark a massive hazard that may obstruct the initial escape route.

Weather conditions are major contributors to fire hazards; lightning, rain and strong winds may spread the fire or cause slippery footing. Potential hazards may also include, falling debris from burnt or fire weakened materials. Hazards are more prominent on sloppy terrains as soil loosened because of the fire may cause slides causing injuries to the investigators. Power lines, roadside fires and railroads present obvious risks and hence investigators must take apt preventive procedures (National Fire Protection Association, 2012).

Fine dead fuels containing low moisture content are more likely to ignite fires more easily. In investigations, there has to be documentation on the vegetation type that was charred in the origin area more so at the point of the origin. Unburned fuels proximate to the point of origin need to be documented to assist in accounting for likely fuel conditions at that area, an account of the fuel volumes and current seasonal phase of the vegetation should also be done.

When a wildfire advances, visible marks of its progression on non-combustible objects can be seen, this are described as fire direction indicators. With analyzing the behavior of the fire, distinct burn patterns will be formed.

The burn patterns will spot the transition zones making the trace of the fire’s point of origin easier. Investigations on objects assess the depth of char; die-out pattern, degree of damage, angle of char, spalling, and curling, sooting, staining, white ash, cupping and v patterns.  These exhibitions are depending on the manner of fire’s progress.

In investigations, different methodologies can be utilized. Systematic methodology is for instance uses a conceptual framework of systematic approach. The method constitutes the following steps, collecting data where facts are collected and the area is examined including the interviewing of witnesses, analyzing data where the collected information is analyzed, developing the hypothesis where the investigator provides a hypothesis based on factual data only, testing the hypothesis against the collected facts.  The final selection of the hypothesis that gives the best explanation of the facts collected.

Facts will include the incident information, such as background information on the location, time, the date and time of the wildfire happened, the weather conditions at that period and the complexity of the fire incident (Fire & Emergency Training Network, 2007).

Having the appropriate hypothesis the investigative team gets to work and even obtains specialized personnel when technical assistance is required. An electrical engineer, a material engineer, an industry expert, a fire behavior analyst or canine teams may assist in providing relevant information that will establish a sound theory in the cause and origin of the fire.

At this point the investigative team also assesses the evaluates the need for arrangements for the provision of extra resources and if so they notify the authorities for assistance.

Wildfire suppression activities such as aircraft water dropping or retardant, backfiring unburned fuel in the origin area are potential risks and therefore investigative personnel should contact the fire suppression groups and align their scheduled investigative activities in their program.

Collecting and preserving the evidence should be done with great caution. Fingerprints and even DNA material can be found on the scene of the fire and hence the investigators must be properly equipped with the necessary equipment to collect such data (National Fire Protection Association, 2012).

Apt documentation, recording and even photographic evidence is essential in the collection of data. Photographs should be taken as a witness would view the evidence, relationship between the different pieces of evidence should come out clear giving an accurate presentation of the data needed. The investigators may also get useful information from witnesses; they are needed to take a detailed account of the voluntary statements and having them sign on their reports.

Confidentiality is essential in data collection of a wildfire. Information can only be revealed to fellow officers

Most investigations are established with anticipation of a legal proceeding and information of their outcome can only be disclosed to authorize personnel. Under no circumstance is information availed to persons without prior prosecutorial approval.

A fire investigation can have several outcomes: there can be administrative action taken to recover suppression costs and property damage, there could be subsequent court proceedings within civil law to recover suppression costs and damages or there can be court proceedings within criminal violations of the state or local law and regulations. In such foreseeable outcomes, the legal council and the case management specialist is consulted.

There should be improved policy development programs where there is the implementation of wildfire prevention activities and pre-suppression improvisations. Environmental responsibility in taking care of the surrounding vegetation is important.

In addition, giving the relevant knowledge to children in school is indispensable in avoiding potential wildfire causes as human activities account for a larger percentage of fire causing incidences.

  • International Association of Fire Chiefs. International Association of Arson Investigators., & National Fire Protection Association. (2012). Fire investigator: Principles and practice to NFPA 921 and 1033. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  • Porter, D. L., & Reeder, L. (2012). Hell on earth: The wildfire pandemic. New York: Forge
  • Simon, S. (1996). Wildfires. New York: Morrow Junior Books.
  • Trinity Workplace Learning. & Fire & Emergency Training Network. (2007). Wildland fire investigation. Carrollton, TX: Trinity Workplace Learning.

Innovation in Technologies of Lethal Weapons

Innovation in Technologies of Lethal Weapons


Humans are referred as social animals as they prefer to live within societies, communities and groups in an interdependent manner. However, even a glance at the human history would reveal that human societies have never been completely peaceful and violence and conflict have shaped several chapters of human history (Singer, 2010, p. 62). As the human society has advanced, the same has been the case with the weapons used in these conflicts. The changes that have been brought the weaponry have changed the warfare which has in turn changed the course of several events within the human history (Brunstetter & Braun, 2011, p. 337). This paper is a brief attempt to explore and analyse the changes or innovation in the technologies of lethal weapons and more importantly, the prime motivations behind the same.

Innovation in Technologies of Lethal Weapons


Precision-guided munition, drones, nuclear weapons, missiles, nukes and laser and plasma guns represent the latest innovation in the field of lethal weapons. Although, there are several other better and more deadly weapons that are within the process of development and testing, they are yet to prove themselves in the arena (Brunstetter & Braun, 2011, p. 337; Markoff, 2010; Mahnken, 2008, p. 254).

The prime motivation behind the innovation of unmanned combat air vehicle and its improvement over the period of time is to ensure lesser civilian causalities. Since the earliest times, conflicts and wars always translated into civilian causalities (Berkowitz, 2003, p. 428). Over the decades, military forces have realised that civilian causalities, at least in the long term, are less likely to behove them. In fact, they have the capacity to create more hatred amongst the common people against the opposing forces, even if the opposing forces genuinely mean no harm to the innocent civilians (Latham, 2002, p. 231; Singer, 2009, p. 74).

This was one of the reasons why terrorists and high value targets have been trying to take shelter in urban and populous settings since the same deters any action from the side of the opposing army. However, with the advent of drone and precision within this technology over the period of time has allowed military forces to accurately eliminate high value targets and that also from a safe distance with minimum possible civilian causalities (Sherman, 2005, p. 30; Mahnken, 2008, p. 254).

During the early days of War on Terrorism in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan, the US relied heavily on missiles and bombs. Although, they killed several thousands of people, most of them were civilians as the bombs and missiles can only kill indiscriminately. The same did eliminate some of the most wanted terrorists in the war against terrorism but it also created several new enemies as the civilians who lost their families and loved ones were now taking up arms against the US military and NATO forces for revenge. Modern wars cannot be won through force and conflict but through winning the hearts and minds of the people (Gurr & Cole, 2000, p. 54; Singer, 2010, p. 62).

Another concern that has led to the creation of drone technology and similar unmanned combat air vehicles is their ability to gather critical intelligence and that also for extended periods of time. Terrorists, knowing that their movements can be tracked and monitored, abandon the use of all forms of technology. However, even before killing them, it is always critical to gather as much intelligence about their whereabouts, plans, strategies and networks as possible. Since sending soldiers to spy on them is too risky and unrealistic, drones can do the same and that also in a much less riskier manner because of their unmanned and concealed nature (Cavelty & Mauer, 2012, p. 81).

The use of chemical and biological weapons was a great threat for much of the 20th century but over the years, the world has quickly moved the political delegitimisation of chemical and biological wars for reasons that have discussed above that they have the potential to cause indiscriminate damage to the masses and even the coming generations of the people that have been affected by the use of those weapons (Lew, et al., 2001, p. 12).

Many of the technologies in combat and weaponry and combat developed in the recent past aims at ensuring that the people using these technologies are not put within harm way. Consider the example of the Roman Empire fighting the Third Servile War against Spartacus and his men. In order to end the rebellion of several thousand men, the Roman Empire had to send an even greater number of men and comprise their lives for ending the rebellion (Berkowitz, 2003, p. 428). For most part of the human history, conflicts have been won by armies, militaries and legions which had greater manpower because they were able to sacrifice the lives of greater number of people and in the process of doing so, they could take more enemies down with them (White, 2005, p. 335). This was true for Eastern and collective societies, where great emphasis was put on the survival of the society, loyalty and selflessness. However, with the advancement of human society, awareness of human rights, increasing importance of liberty and freedom and rise of individualism, governments, militaries and people themselves are less willing to put them in the harm’s way (Gurr & Cole, 2000, p. 54). 

 Drones, nukes, missiles, laser weapons, cyber wars and others represent the shift from willing to sacrifice the lives soldiers hoping that they would inflict greater damage on the enemies’ ranks to putting the safety and security of one’s own people first (Sidky, 2007, p. 849). Human capital is worth more living than dead and policymakers understand the same. Furthermore, in a vigilant democratic system, citizens will never allow policymakers to retain their political positions or for that matter of fact, prevent themselves from criminal charges and prosecution, if they put the lives of their citizens in danger (Cavelty & Mauer, 2012, p. 81). 

Furthermore, the human society has advanced and progressed from its more violent and bloodier version. The human civilisation has evolved from brutally and indiscriminately killing its enemies to showing a more compassionate and civilised approach towards conflicts (Martin & Wright, 2003, p. 212; Pelton, 2007, p. 98). A few centuries ago, bloodshed and violence were considered to the defining feature of strong and dominant but that is no longer true. As the human societies progress, the new generations have come to hate and despise active engagement in bloody conflicts. Civil societies, international organisations, non government organisational and pressure groups can exert great influence on governments and militaries to uphold civil liberties at all times (Sherman, 2005, p. 30; Jones, 2011, p. 96).

 However, when the general tendency of people to engage in wars has declined, the threat of war hasn’t. The biggest 25 conflicts in the 20th century have translated into the deaths of more than 190 million people (Singer, 2009, p. 30). The world is now less secure and there are several ongoing conflicts within the world which have the potential to turn into full scale global wars. The conflict between North and South Korea, Iran and Israel, American and Al Qaeda, whose terrorists are hiding within Yemen, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq and Kashmir Dispute and the arch rivalry between India and Pakistan and others; represents an ever increasing threat of war (White, 2005, p. 335; McMahan, 2004, p. 699).

Gone are the days when the entire country could be drafted to wars. This advanced civilisation means that not all people are willing to go to war or interested in leaving their lifestyles but at the same time, they policymakers realise that the threat of a war has increased and the world would change for the coming generations if a Third World War were to break (Martin & Wright, 2003, p. 212). Therefore, militaries and policymakers are constantly seeking to invent new technologies of killing people which require lesser input from people and could yet generate better and greater results (Gurr & Cole, 2000, p. 54; Fink, 2010, p. 239).

Furthermore, these technologies also represent the inclination of governments and militaries to conduct covert operations and escape the eye of the civil and human rights organisations might create havoc on the government for better and humane treatment of the prisoners, which in itself, is a risk. Militaries prefer to gather quick intelligence from their targets and kill them as to end their chapters and send strong message to the followers and other members of the opposing army groups (Cavelty & Mauer, 2012, p. 8; Latham, 2002, p. 231).

Therefore, the latest technologies in killing people have attempted at depersonalising the war and at the same time inflicting the maximum damage on the enemies with the greatest possible precision. In fact, it is the desire of militaries and countries to be become more precise within their operations which explain the advent of laser and plasma weapons which can fire ammunition at the speed of light with almost 100 precision to great distances without being influenced by gravity, air, light or any other external factors (Fink, 2010, p. 239). In the past, when soldiers were aiming at moving targets at great distances, they had to compensate for their movement which would happen during the time the bullets are travelling towards the target but with laser and plasma weapons, it is impossible to evade the shot of an accurately fired laser (Lew, et al., 2001, p. 12; Martin, 2002, p. 65).

For military soldiers and experts who participate in the process of bombing missiles and drones on the terrorists have almost the same experience as a boy playing a video game except for the fact that when they press those buttons, dozens of people actually lose their lives thousands of miles away. Important here to note is that the human society, which has been extremely violent for thousands of years, moved towards becoming a more civilised society primarily because of the embrace of egalitarian principles (Sharkey, 2011, p. 235; Finn, 2011). One of the several reasons behind the emergence of egalitarianism as argued by several scholars is the emergence of new weapons which could bring physical strong and weak people on the same footing. For example, during the Roman and Greek empires and before, much importance was given to the physical strength of man as the same predicted his ability to win a particular conquest (Alexander, 2000, p. 85). However, with the invention of machine guns which allowed even the most effeminate and weak men on an equal footing with physically well built and strong men, egalitarianism began to prevail (Martin & Wright, 2003, p. 212; McMahan, 2004, p. 699).

Innovation in technologies of killing is motivated by the desire of governments to become more efficient. Except for countries such as North Korea, Iran, Cuba and Venezuela, governments no longer the liberty of spending the biggest chunk of their resources and budgets on wars but their priorities have changed to economic development,  education, health, infrastructure development and others (Lew, et al., 2001, p. 12; Karp, 2008, p. 124). Furthermore, the ongoing movement towards fiscal responsibility and smaller governments means that policymakers do not enjoy the same liberty to spend at militarisation, which has forced them to spend their limited resources at making more effective weapons for killing people. The latest weapons are the most precise in the human history and when compared on the basis of their ability to kill the number of people within a given timeframe, they are much more cost effective if compared with prices that are adjusted for inflation (Cavelty & Mauer, 2012, p. 81; Brunstetter & Braun, 2011, p. 337).


The innovation in technologies of lethal weapons represent the advancement in human civilisation, rejection of bloodshed and violence, changed lifestyle and priorities of an ordinary man, fiscal responsibility and greater precision and a burning desire to extend force and influence over the rest of the world.

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