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Effects of Global Warming on Polar Bear Population

Effects of Global Warming on Polar Bear Population


Many scientists nowadays believe that global warming is placing certain animal species in jeopardy. They believe that a change in the animals’ ecosystem puts their survival in jeopardy. The polar bear is one of the animals that has been listed as endangered. The scientific community has long questioned if the polar bear is a threatened animal. Polar bear numbers are believed to be declining as a result of global warming, a shortage of food supplies, and Eskimos hunting. Polar bears survive in very cold climates, and their survival is believed to be in danger as a result of human-caused global warming. In America, a lawsuit has been lodged to defend polar bears, which are considered to be vulnerable. In fact, the polar bear population is stable and does not need safety.

Reasons they don’t need protection

The population of polar bear is intact

Before a few decades, the number of polar bears was expected to be somewhat lower; but, in recent years, the population of polar bears has been growing. According to ( Unger)“ Let’s start with what we know. Almost everybody agrees that there are between 20,000 and 25,000 polar bears alive today. Here’s another thing almost everyone agrees on: That number is a whole lot bigger than it was 40 years ago”. Most of the knowledge regarding the polar bear population loss remains speculative. In recent years, residents have seen a larger number of bears than in past years. Some facts regarding the polar bear community are founded on speculation rather than factual proof.

Effects of Global Warming on Polar Bear Population

Most people assume that the polar bear survey number is misleading because it includes defects. In the opposite, it has been said that the increasing number of polar bears poses a danger to humans. Bears pose a danger to people who love summer holidays and recreational adventures. “Communities in the Western Hudson Bay region, where harvest quotas were cut by 80% four years ago, are complaining about the number of polar bears,” according to ( Kirk). People will still see as many as 20 polar bears at the ice-flow edge if they gaze out the window,” Flaherty adds. Polar bears do not need threatened protection in such a case.

The Arctic ice is not Melting

Polar bears live in the ice of the Arctic. The loss of Arctic ice as a result of global change has sparked a lot of debate. However, as of 2012, this seems to be a twisted reality, since the arctic ice appears to be thriving. “Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean underwent a sharp recovery this year from the record-low levels of 2012, with 50 percent more ice surviving the summer melt season, scientists said. It is the largest one-year increase in Arctic ice since satellite tracking began in 1978”. And moreover, the polar bears are used to live in less ice as a matter of adaptation. And Arctic ice is can increase and decrease as a natural process and nothing is permanent as change is part of nature.

The satellite monitoring reveled that the ice pack is re-growing. When there is enough arctic ice there is no threat to the life of the polar bears. If there is a natural habitat, then the animals surviving in it are not under threat. Polar bears even can survive with less ice and they have done so in the past. Polar bear is specie that has been living on earth since thousands of years According to scientist the ice is 50 % up that in 2012. The global warming is not a proven fact rather than more of assumption there are many debates on this issue so there is no need of protection for polar bears.

Polar Bears have Enough Food Supply

As people think polar bear do not have scarcity of food supply. Polar bear do not only survive on meat but they adapt to climate change and do eat eggs and berries.  The polar bears also hunt on snow geese.  As per ( Cox)“The polar bear is an opportunistic hunter, always alert to other food sources—including vegetation, geese, and even bird eggs if available. These terrestrial foods do not provide enough calories to sustain them, however. But other arctic marine mammals, including whales, walruses, and narwhals, do provide adequate nutrition for hungry polar bears”. When there are many options for food then there is less chance for the population of the polar bear to decrease. And more over the arctic is not a human touched area and all the food sources available are for the polar bears

Polar bear like any other animal has adaptive skills. They can survive on many species that are available on arctic region. The polar bear have been surviving in the arctic region for long time.  Very less people know that polar bears feed on mushrooms and berries. They have their own adaptive skills and there is plenty of fish in the region for them to survive. Polar bear like any other animal is flexible and can satisfy their appetite with available sources. So there is no reason for us to protect the polar bears as an endangered species.

Polar Bears are Reproducing Well

According to scientific survey, the polar bears are reproducing well and there is rise in their population. Actually, the polar bears are not harmed by any ice melt and their number has increased overall. Polar bear being a polygamous animal can reproduce their species well. According to ( Layton)  “Polar bears aren’t monogamous animals — a strong male might impregnate several females in one season”. Moreover a pregnant polar bear can survive on fat reserves for 9 months which is a good sign of survival. With such a reproductive nature there is less chance for the specie of polar bear to decline. Polar bear is sustaining well and definitely do not need protection as an endangered species.

Polar Bears have no Predators

One of the facts that the population of polar bear is not declining is because it does not have predators. Generally all of the species on earth have predators and that is one of the reason they may decline in number but fortunately, polar bear has no predators and this could conserve their population in a natural manner.   When the animals do not reproduce well, or does not get food supply or has adverse habitat then having predators can make the species extinct. However, with no predators, polar bears do not need protection as endangered species.


The polar bear being tagged as an endangered species is a myth than a reality. For the very same reason, the U>S has not agreed to the petition with regard to conserving them as an endangered animal. There is no credible information or facts which suggest that polar bear population is declining. Polar bear does not spend their time on ice but mostly on water or sea. And regarding the melting of Arctic, there is decrease in ice somewhere in arctic at all times and is a natural process. The survey shows that the polar bear population is growing and they have good food supply and reproducing rate. Moreover, global warming is not an accepted fact as scientist has found that arctic ice is better than past years. Keeping all these facts in mind, polar bears are not under threat they like another animal should be protected but they are definitely not an endangered species but still need to be conserved as a natural asset.

Work Cited
  • Cox, Daniel J. “Hunting and Diet.” http://www.polarbearsinternational.org. Polarbears International, 2013. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/about-polar-bears/essentials/hunting-and-eating>.
  • Gillis, Justin. “Arctic Ice Makes Comeback From Record Low, but Long-Term Decline May Continue.” http://www.nytimes.com. N.p., 2013. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/21/science/earth/arctic-ice-makes-comeback-from-record-low-but-long-term-decline-may-continue.html?_r=0>.
  • Layton, Julia. “How Polar Bear works.” http://science.howstuffworks.com. How Stuff Works, 2013. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/zoology/mammals/polar-bear3.htm>
  • Myers, Kirk. “Canada’s growing polar bear population ‘becoming a problem,’ locals say.” http://www.examin er.com. Examiner, Jan. 2010. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <http://www.examiner.com/article/canada-s-growing-polar-bear-population-becoming-a-problem-locals-say>.
  • Unger, Zac. “Are Polar Bears Really Disappearing?.” http://online.wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal, 2013. Web. 3 Feb. 2014. <http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424 127887323452204578288343627 2  82034>.

Review of Healthcare System in Abu Dhabi

Review of Healthcare System in Abu Dhabi



Healthcare is one of the most important sectors that have been identified by the government of UAE, and due to additional effort, the healthcare industry in UAE showed significant progress and extraordinary growth in the last decade. The government of the country has been aiming to diversify from its oil intensive business environment, which is why providing adequate resources for the healthcare sector is an initiative. Healthcare segment is regulated and controlled in UAE, both at Emirate and Federal level. President and member of the UAE, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, has advocated for the creation of high-quality healthcare facilities and centers for the population since the country’s independence in 1971. As a resource-rich nation, the UAE has never had financial difficulties in upholding high levels of healthcare. Various agencies and regulatory entities in the UAE oversee and operate public healthcare facilities. The Ministry of Health Authority-Abu Dhabi (HAAD), the Emirates Health Authority (EHA), and the Dubai Health Authority (DHA) are the key authorities among them (Koornneefa, Robben, Seiari d, e & Siksekf, 2012). The country’s healthcare level is incredibly large, and as a result, government investment in the field is also extremely high. Between 1993 and 2003, the government spent approximately $436 million on this sector. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the country’s healthcare sector accounted for 2.9 percent of the gross domestic product in 2004. Cardiovascular diseases were found to be the leading cause of death in the world, accounting for 28 percent of all deaths. Congenital anomalies, fractures, fatalities, and malignancies are all significant causes of illness and death. Apart from Jordan, Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the third and second most admired medical destinations in the country, according to the World Bank (Koornneefa, Robben, Seiari d, e & Siksekf, 2012). In the United Arab Emirates, there are excellent medical services and physicians. International medical staff and physicians are required throughout the country due to the large number of expats. This also eliminates any problems that visitors from Western countries could face during any medical procedures. The Rashid Hospital in Dubai is the most modern hospital in the United Arab Emirates. There are also excellent maternal hospitals throughout the region, where all deliveries are performed by highly qualified physicians and medical personnel. Polio has been eradicated in the world (Koornneefa, Robbena, Seiari d, e & Siksekf, 2012). The government entity SEHA manages more than 40 public hospitals in the UAE and Abu Dhabi, as well as 57 health centers, three maternal hospitals, three specialized dental centers, five rehabilitation centers, and thirteen private hospitals. Profit healthcare centers and clinics, on the other hand, outnumber government-sponsored ones (Westway, Rheeder, Van Zyl & Seager, 2003).

Research Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to look at the UAE’s healthcare system, with a particular emphasis on Abu Dhabi. The country’s healthcare sector is important, and the government and other regulatory bodies have worked hard to develop, regulate, and oversee it. Certain research goals have been formulated with this goal in mind:

  • To examine the overall status and state of the UAE’s healthcare industry, as well as the various regulatory bodies and their roles in the UAE’s healthcare sector.
  • To discuss the healthcare business of Abu Dhabi with regards to its financial contribution to the national income.
  • To evaluate the health insurance issues in Abu Dhabi.Review of Healthcare System in Abu Dhabi

Theoretical Background

Healthcare System in Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi is the capital of UAE and also, one of the most successful cities due to its immense contribution to the national income. It is one of the top exporters of oil and gas globally. The city is presently enjoying extensive investments, which reveals that its financial status and standard of living is quite high. However, with the increasing population, the diseases are also rising. Diseases such as cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and diabetes, are mostly found among the citizens. According to HAAD, the population of Abu Dhabi will double and a requirement of around 20 new hospitals and 23 new clinics would be necessary. The optimal occupancy in the critical care wards in Abu Dhabi is around 73 percent, and reports of 100 percent occupancy have been there (Smith & Swinehart, 2001). The provision of sustainable, high quality and affordable healthcare, that the people in the city can freely access, is indeed a dream for every policymakers. However, there are countries where the gap between reality and dream has motivated the stakeholders to advocate lasting and structural reforms for addressing the financial concerns and quality problems in the healthcare segment.

WHO and Organisation for Economic Cooperation (OECD) have carried out several researches and identified that the cost of healthcare has been increasing aggressively in the recent times. According to Reuters, the pharmaceutical sector has been showing a growth of 11.3 percent, and by 2014, the drug expenditure is expected to reach around $2.2 billion, this translates to a 9.86% cumulative annual growth rate. The study published by the Dubai Chamber of Commerce had stated the local pharmaceutical segment to be small, and so, the country has to rely on Europe for 64 percent of drug imports.

Regulation for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices

The pharmaceutical market in Abu Dhabi and the entire UAE is subjugated by the foreign multinationals and has very few domestic manufacturers in the country. However, even then, there are well-established legal framework to govern the manufacture, import and distribution of medicine and medical equipments that has been set under the Federal Law 4 of 1983. The Gulf countries’ pharmaceutical industry is worth about $7.6 billion, and it is projected to expand to $9.6 billion by 2019. The UAE has made 34 percent contribution in this, which is around $2.6 billion. Most of the growth percent in the industry can be linked to the import of legitimate drug due to the increasing population of the country and also, due to over-prescribed medicines by the doctors. And has been a significant contributor to will healthcare costs, as well as other factors, a significant market tool for the companies, producing medicines and medical devices. The Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS) have revealed that expensive medicines are being prescribed in Abu Dhabi, and this increasing trend has been noticed in recent years. In order to control and manage the pharmaceutical industry, the government of the country has set laws for the manufacturers, distributors and sellers (Rahmqvist, 2001).

The Law no. 4 in the pharmaceutical segment UAE states that any pharmaceutical factory, distribution centre or shop cannot be opened without a licence and the applicant, applying for the licence, should be a citizen of UAE. The medical products to be offered for sales have to be legally imported. The sales, distribution and import of the medical devices are controlled and managed by the Ministry of the country. There are set guidelines of the ministry for medical devices, and those with the intention of exporting the medical devices can only do so with the help of a local medical shop owner with a valid licence. The medical device application form needs to be submitted to the Ministry of Drug Control Department. UAE is slowly venturing towards biotechnology. Dubai Biotechnology and Research Park has been set up in the free zone of Dubai in the year 2005 for research and development. Proper establishment and recognition would be able to offer benefits to patients in the healthcare segment of Abu Dhabi. This can also be a catalyst to boost the turnover of the healthcare sector of Abu Dhabi and the entire UAE (OECD Investment Research, 2010).


One of the most significant characteristics of Abu Dhabi’s healthcare system is its prevailing aggressive competition. This has been due to rising privatization of the healthcare services, which are even receiving international recognition from institutions such as John Hopkins Hospital and Cleveland Clinic. With the development of SEHA in 2007, a system was created which led to the delivery of critical care service to the employees of the external companies for the creation of a quasi market. SEHA controls the performance of these contract providers, which are monitored under a set of key performance indicators. This system also includes financial penalties when the performance of the service provider falls below the expectations (Ygge & Arnetz, 2001).

The private sector in the healthcare segment has expanded considerably in 2009-2010 as the number of facilities in the healthcare segment has increased by 12.4 percent, and among these, 90 percent is run by private companies. It has been noticed that these private service providers have improved the quality of healthcare services. The augmenting facilities, however, do not imply an improved access to healthcare. The utilisation rate is still low and differs starkly in comparison to the total population (Zineldin, 2006).

Financial Aspect in Healthcare Segment of Abu Dhabi, UAE

In this segment of the study, the discussion would be focused on the financial aspect of the healthcare segment of UAE and Abu Dhabi. In 2011, it has been noted that UAE was able to achieve a GDP growth of around 3.3 percent due to the improving economic status of the country. The major reasons behind this are the confidence of the customers, increasing level of trade, tourism in the country and definitely, the rising oil prices. It is regarded as one of the wealthiest countries based on it’s per capita income. The high government spending on the healthcare segment is due to the availability of high disposable income (Deloitte, 2011). Market trends suggest that the spending in the healthcare segment will continue to remain high because of outpatient services, overconsumption patterns and a high level of awareness. It has been found that the government of the country has spend around $8 billion in the year 2010 in the healthcare segment and had also planned to increase their spending by 24 percent in 2011. By 2014, the government of the country will try to double the spending on the healthcare segment as a growth of 3.4 is expected in GDP from 2.8 percent. This growth is, however, assumed to be increasing due to drivers like, low inflation, aging population and increasing purchasing power (Deloitte, 2011).

Another significant reason is the obligatory insurance policies in Abu Dhabi, due to which the people are somewhat bound to avail healthcare services from the country, leading to an increase in national income. However, as discussed in various places in this study, the healthcare expenditure is still not up to the mark, compared to the policies availed by the customers, because the expats are going back to their homelands and the people remaining in UAE or Abu Dhabi are not utilising their basic policies. However, the CAGR is expected to rise to 5 percent, thereby revealing that the country has extremely high growth prospects in the healthcare sector, with regards to the financial perspective (Deloitte, 2011).

If the expense front of the healthcare services is analysed, then it can be found that the medical expenses have increased by 35 to 40 percent in the past decade. The reasons behind the increasing medical cost maybe the consumer habits in the country, inflation rates or the tendency of fewer patients to over-consume the offered medical services that leads to a scarcity of offerings at various places. The increasing competition among the medical professionals is also one of the significant reasons for increasing medical cost.  It has been also estimated that the increasing medical costs is also due to the tendency of the doctors to over-prescribe medicines or treatments, so that the hospitals and physicians can derive maximum treatment cost from the insurance companies. The increasing rate of spiralling or chronic diseases also results in increasing medical premiums, leading to an increase in the healthcare cost by at least 20 percent (Deloitte, 2011).

Health Insurance

The reform programs, established by the government of Abu Dhabi, mandates that all the workers need to avail the health insurance. The employees working in companies in the city must register themselves in the health insurance system and fund their insurance, which also includes the expatriate employees. According to the regulatory authorities, around 95 percent of the population should have access to the healthcare system through insurance plans. This can be done by enrolling in one of the three insurance plans in the healthcare segment. However, even though people were compelled to avail healthcare insurance, but this did not confirm the percentage of policy utilisation (Koornneefa, Robben, Seiari d, e & Siksekf, 2012). The members, availing the basic insurance in the healthcare segment, seldom access the policy. This is an indication that the healthcare policies, though availed, are underutilized. Furthermore, the expats go to their own countries when they are seriously ill. This leads to lower utilisation of policies. So, this signifies that focus needs to be on utilisation of basic policy needs (Koornneefa, Robben, Seiari d, e & Siksekf, 2012).

In the year 2010, around 3000 patients were approved by the medical board to utilise their insurance policies for treatment, which led to an increase in policy utilisation by 13 percent compared to 2009. Apart from this, there is limited information available in relation to the affordability of the services related to healthcare, even when more than 2.7 percent of GDP is spent on healthcare sector. The two most significant offerings in healthcare insurance are Thiqa Scheme and Basic plan, which are supported by the government of Abu Dhabi (Brady & Robertson, 2001). The current research on the healthcare insurance segment of Abu Dhabi has indicated that health insurance decreases the per capita spending on the healthcare of the household.  This signifies that it is certainly complex to identify the impact of the initiation of mandatory insurance schemes in the healthcare segment (Koornneefa, Robben, Seiari d, e & Siksekf, 2012).

Comparative Analysis Between Abu Dhabi and Singapore Healthcare Segment

In this segment of the study, the focus of discussion would be towards conducting a comparative analysis between the healthcare segment of UAE, which includes Abu Dhabi and Singapore. As already been studied, generous financial spending from the government is helping the healthcare sector of UAE and Abu Dhabi to flourish, and world-class healthcare services are being offered to the patients. The government and regulatory bodies have ensured that 90 percent of citizens of the country have their own health insurance policy. Now, the healthcare segment of Singapore would also be studied in order draw a comparison between these two countries and their ways of managing healthcare segments (Bodur, 2002).

It is said that Singapore possesses strong excellence in the healthcare sector too. It is known to have the fourth-best healthcare infrastructure in the world, but even less than 4 percent of the GDP is spent on the healthcare segment. The healthcare segment and services offered are multilayered, and the practices in these services fall among the best treatments worldwide. However, despite this reputation in the global healthcare business, the Ministry of Healthcare in Singapore has been putting efforts to restructure the healthcare system and incorporate care model, which is integrated in the business model for providing patients with an integrated and holistic care. The framework of healthcare in Singapore has been segregated into six divisions based on the regions (Chua & Poh, 2008). Despite the uncertainties arising due to the global economy, the healthcare segment has been doing quite well. Based on the data provided by the Healthcare Index of Singapore Stock Exchange, the industry has gained 40.7 percent, even during the financial downturn around 2010. This signifies that the healthcare segment of Singapore is equal or higher in status, compared to UAE or Abu Dhabi, because this segment in Singapore has been successful in establishing global records in terms of quality of services provided to the patients around the world (Singapore Economic Development Board, 2013).

It has been a common destination for medical travellers over the years, and this trend is increasing day by day. The healthcare services offered to the patients are mainly based on the sophisticated techniques, technology and procedures. The services offered are niche, and due to the country’s political stability, low crime percentage and excellent transportation services, travellers find it convenient to visit Singapore for medical purposes. The culture and cosmopolitan environment of the country also attract patients’ attention from all over. Though UAE and Abu Dhabi, in this case, possess all these qualities, yet at some point, the culture and ethnic pattern followed in the country is specific, which is why the western tourists sometimes prefer to avoid the Middle-Eastern countries (OECD Investment Research, 2010).


In countries, different stakeholders have different points of view regarding the effective mechanism for bringing about reforms. However, the aim is similar in every case, which is high quality treatment in the healthcare segment, affordability and free access to every citizen in the country. The goal set by the government of Abu Dhabi reflects its pledge to offer sustainable, affordable and quality healthcare services to its community. However, it can be said that there has been slight research on the role of the healthcare system, its quality and administration in Abu Dhabi. Regardless of little evidence, various conclusions can be drawn. The first goal is to improve the access of the people to healthcare. Strides towards increasing accessibility have been made, and over 95 percent of the population avails the health insurance scheme now. However, the rate of utilisation differs among the policyholders.

Many challenges, with regards to access, quality and affordability, need to be addressed. However, the first step towards success has already been taken by the government of Abu Dhabi under the guidance of HAAD. Ambitious research initiatives have been taken by the government in order to offer excellent healthcare services to the people. The Abu Dhabi government has established research initiatives for various compliances and regulatory requirements. A comparison has also been drawn with the healthcare segment of Singapore. It was found that though the healthcare sector of Abu Dhabi is progressing and has high standards, yet Singapore has better opportunities to offer to the medical tourists around the world, due to the better facilities and favourable external environment.

  • Bodur, S. (2002). Outpatient satisfaction with health centers in urban areas. Turkish Journal of Medicine, 32, 409-14.
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  • Chua, S. T. & Poh, C. Y. (2008). Singapore healthcare sector. Retrieved from http://www.rafflesmedicalgroup.com/ImgCont/249/suisse_Stronggrowth%20diagnosis.pdf
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Role and Potential of Ecotourism in the UK

Role and Potential of Ecotourism in the UK

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Ecotourism
  • Ecotourism Not Promoted As a Major Sector in the UK Tourism Market
  • Role and Potential of Ecotourism in the UK
  • Examples of the Areas That Can Facilitate To Augment the Potential of Ecotourism in the UK
  • Forms of Ecotourism
  • Conclusion
  • References


Tourism is one of the fast growing hospitality sectors in the world. It has a positive impact on the economy of a country and has captured the attention of several countries. However, the growth in tourism might cause relevant threats to the cultural and natural diversity. In this respect, eco-tourism has grown in importance in the global economy over the last few decades. It is primarily relevant in a niche sector and is attempting to achieve long-term growth. Ecotourism differs from other types of travel in that it focuses on the preservation of natural habitats by exchanging information and teaching tourists regarding the value of these properties. According to the writers, wasteland sites and pristine regions are attractive to ecotourism. Ecotourism generates profits by allowing tourists to ride across natural environments while still educating them (Wood, 2002). Ecotourism, on the other hand, will not be able to overtake traditional tourist operations, nor would it be able to maintain a successful sector. This article would use relevant examples to assess the importance of eco-tourism and its failure in the United Kingdom. Furthermore, the potential and function of ecotourism in the United Kingdom, as well as the manner in which it can be implemented, will be decided.


It is a type of ‘nature-based’ tourism that is an important tool for environmental development by appreciating and adoring natural resources without causing them to be disturbed. It is a valuable mode of transportation since it is useful in informing citizens about the importance of environmental preservation. Ecotourism is a significant portion of tourism as it impacts and contributes for the welfare of the community. It emphasizes educating the people regarding the environment and also contributes to its conservation. The natural environment is the primarily area which is explored due to ecotourism. Ecotourism has helped in developing and creating new areas for tourism which was left unexplored and unreachable. Desert regions and coastal areas that are marginal and underdeveloped are only a handful of the emerging tourist areas that have emerged as a result of ecotourism. For the reason of travel, eco-tourism visits places rich in heritage and encompasses the protected environment. National parks and castles are examples of such places (Wood, 2002; The International Ecotourism Society, 2000).

Role and Potential of Ecotourism in the UK

One of the most significant problems with ecotourism is that it has no guidelines or limits about who may use the term to encourage tourism. It is often misused for the promotion of the tourist sector, and it is used for the purpose of advertisement without ever visiting the natural areas (Wood, 2002).

Ecotourism Not Promoted As a Major Sector in the UK Tourism Market

The main issue with ecotourism in the United Kingdom is the shortage of destinations that are yet to be visited by the tourism industry. Furthermore, the United Kingdom has less natural habitats, such as trees and deserts, that can be discovered and clarified by tourism. Furthermore, the United Kingdom is unlikely to meet the orthodox expectations of small-scale tourism. The role of eco-tourism in the United Kingdom is being impacted by the country’s growing population, as the amount of natural areas decreases as the population grows. According to estimates, the population of the United Kingdom is expected to double by almost 4.3 million by 2018, posing a threat to ecotourism (Office for National Statistics, 2013).

Another important determinant is that a country’s demography has an effect on ecotourism to some degree. Young adults, middle-aged people, and senior citizens make up the majority of ecotourism visitors. The people belonging to these age vicinity usually prefer to go for tourism which is exotic in nature and desire to disburse money on the tourism packages which would entertain them by making them visit wildlife which is not really found in the UK. This has not enabled the UK to promote ecotourism as a major sector of tourism. Additionally, it is not promoted as a major form of tourism as it is more into educating people regarding the areas. Only people with high education and children prefer this form of tourism where they can learn about the different locations while enjoying them. Moreover, the ecotourism based trips’ duration is often 8-15 days which is a long period for any individual to spend and it is not quite cost effective for people as well. Only the people who prefer expedition and love wildlife would favour ecotourism and hence it cannot be promoted as a major sector of tourism in the UK. The amount of money spend can also be a factor that has affected ecotourism in the UK (The International Ecotourism Society, 2000; Tourism Queensland, n.d.).

Role and Potential of Ecotourism in the UK

Ecotourism is gaining importance in recent years in the UK by taking into account the good practices of ecotourism for its long-term sustainability. Ecotourism has a potential to attract “good money” as it has the opportunity to expand travelling to Islands which are filled with beaches free from the crowd. This would enable the UK to make a sustainable profit through ecotourism and improve the ‘health and wealth’ of the country along with the tourism sector. Besides, eco-tourism has a potential to grow in the UK as this category of tourism would follow the conservation ethics while traveling and educating people. Consequently, as a major role played by ecotourism, it can be determined that the people of the island and other areas will be able to earn their livelihood (Cousins, 2006; Mair, 2006). 

The United Kingdom can develop as a potential market for ecotourism because of the changing lifestyle of the people. To feel motivated and to enjoy their leisure time people now are increasingly focusing on ecotourism as it enables to spread tourism with cleanliness and ethics. In the recent years, people now prefer to spend more money on ethical holiday and thus with the changing lifestyle of people, eco-tourism is gaining importance (Lindsay, 2003).

Examples of the Areas That Can Facilitate To Augment the Potential of Ecotourism in the UK

The potential market in the UK can increase for ecotourism with the development of the areas such as the Brecon Beacons, Northumberland and Snowdonia National Park. People who love wildlife would also prefer this form of tourism as it moves around areas such as Paradise Wildlife Park which is located in Broxbourne. It is a well-known zoo which is enjoyed by elderly persons and children. In these areas, the people will be provided with knowledge regarding the breeding programs of the various species. All these areas are becoming amid the most important attractions for the people in the UK and other travellers. Ecotourism has also helped in enhancing the efforts of the people to maintain these areas. In this context Reynolds and Braithwaite have enacted a framework that illustrates the prevailing association between ecotourism and wildlife. Among the categories highlighted by Reynolds and Braithwaite, nature-based tourism would the most beneficial aspect that can enable to enhance ecotourism by a considerable extent (Fennell, 2007). Thus, in order to uphold the expectations of ecotourism, the parks are required to become more green and sustainable as the people are becoming aware and conscious about the environment. Paradise Park in the UK has become one of the major attractions for the people due to its fresh environment and the cleanliness which can aid ecotourism. Therefore, it can be stated that these areas are coming into focus due to ecotourism and they are providing earnings for  people in the local areas and thus helping the economy as well (The International Ecotourism Society, 2012; National Park, 2013).

Forms of Ecotourism

Ecotourism has a positive impact on the environment and helps in maintaining the beauty of the nature. The purpose of ecotourism is to help in reducing the exploitation of the natural environment. It intends to develop the areas and improve the infrastructure of these areas to facilitate the local habitants. There are various forms of tourism which promote international and domestic tourism. It can be stated that one of the major forms of ecotourism is “green tourism” which takes into account the environment while traveling. The type of tourism provides services such as awareness programs while visiting locations and also develops green networks. Due to all these facilities provided by green tourism as a part of ecotourism, it can be promoted by the UK government to ensure safety of the environment. Green tourism would enable to promote the nature and the culture of the country. It would help in reducing the carbon footprints and believes in the concept of ‘Go Green’. If this is promoted in the UK, it would enable to reduce the pollution and enhance the experience of the people while travelling as they would be able to enjoy the nature to the fullest. It would also help to bring the people close to the nature without damaging the environment. It takes steps in protecting the wildlife, plants and other natural resources. All these steps might motivate people and make them cherish the craft of the local people of these areas (The Green Tourism, 2013).

Preservation of the culture is a crucial constituent of green tourism as it facilitates in providing the experience of the heritage sites which promotes the cultural values of the UK. Eco-tourism promotes tourists to enjoy the nature, love it and assists them in exhibiting commitment towards environmental protection. Moreover, it allows people to enjoy the cultural value of the country along with the scenic beauty. If eco-tourism is promoted more aggressively in the UK, it will be able to provide all the benefits of green tourism and make the experience an unforgettable one for the tourists who have come to visit the natural areas of the UK (Font & Wood, 2007).


Ecotourism is an adventurous form of tourism which helps in promoting the cultural heritage of the UK by visiting its natural resources such as national park and islands. It has the features of sustainability as it attracts people to visit the natural areas while educating them regarding the importance of the areas. Ecotourism has not been able to be the major part of the tourism sector in the UK because of certain limitations. However, with the modernised form of the ecotourism, it is gaining importance in the United Kingdom. Ecotourism is not being promoted in the UK because of a lack of the existing areas. Nonetheless, the trend is changing in the UK and the people are becoming more interested in this form of tourism to enjoy the environment and the aura associated with it. 

  • Cousins, J.A., 2006. The Role of UK-Based Conservation Tourism Operators. Tourism Management, Vol. 28, pp.1020–1030.
  • Font, X., & Wood M.E., 2007. Sustainable Tourism Certification Marketing and its Contribution to SME Market Access. CAB International, pp. 147-163.
  • Fennell, D., 2007. Ecotourism. Routledge.
  • Lindsay, H.E., 2003.   Ecotourism: the Promise and Perils of Environmentally-Oriented Travel. Review Article. [Online] Available at: http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/ecotour/overview.php [Accessed December 19, 2013].
  • Mair, J., 2006. Eco-tourism: A Sustainable Trade? BBC. [Online] Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6179901.stm [Accessed December 19, 2013].
  • National Park, 2013. National Park Facts And Figures. Physical Facts And Figures. [Online] Available at: http://www.nationalparks.gov.uk/learningabout/whatisanationalpark/factsandfigures  [Accessed December 19, 2013].
  • Office For National Statistics, 2013. Statistical Bulletin: National Population Projections, 2012-Based Statistical Bulletin. Population Projection. [Online] Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/npp/national-population-projections/2012-based projections/stb-2012-based-npp-principal-and-key-variants.html?format=print [Accessed December 19, 2013].
  • The International Ecotourism Society, 2000. Ecotourism Statistical Fact Sheet. General Tourism Statistics, pp. 1-5.
  • The Green Tourism, 2013. Green Tourism. Services. [Online] Available at: http://www.green-tourism.com/business/services/destinations/ [Accessed December 19, 2013].
  • Tourism Queensland, No Date. The UK Ecotourism Market. Eco tourist Definition, pp. 1-6.
  • The International Ecotourism Society, 2012. Eco Destinations – UK. United Kingdom. [Online] Available at: http://www.ecotourism.org/united-kingdom [Accessed December 19, 2013].
  • Wood, M. E., 2002. Ecotourism: Principles, Practices & Policies for Sustainability.  Ecotourism, pp. 5-59.

Legal and Ethical Issues in Adoption

Legal and Ethical Issues in Adoption


The idea of family in American society has dramatically evolved over the past several decades. A diverse spectrum of family dynamics is emerging in society. Single parent households, same-sex parent families, and ‘adoptive families,’ which refers to any family that lawfully adopts one or more children from other families, are among them. Adoption is one of the newest developments in American families. Adoption is becoming more common in American society. White parents and non-white children are common in adoptive communities, as are non-white families with white children. Adoption is the mechanism through which an individual assumes parental responsibility for a child who is not his or her biological child, thus transferring all parental rights from the biological parents (Brodzinsky & Jess 37). After the 1900s, statistics show that the acceptance rate has increased. In 1944, for example, there were 50,000 adoptions completed in the United States. In 1970, the United States has the largest rate of adoptions, with 175,000 children being adopted. According to the US Census Bureau, about 128,000 Americans were adopted in 2000 (Brodzinsky & Jess 44). The overall adopted population of the United States was 2,058,915 in the same year.

Legal and Ethical Issues in Adoption

An Overview of Adoption and Its Effects

Adoption is divided into two types. There are two types of adoption: transparent adoption and closed adoption. Adoptive and birth parents collaborate during the parenting period, which is known as open adoption. With this form of adoption, the adoptive child has the opportunity to meet her biological parents and can receive visits from them on a regular basis. This, though, must be decided upon by both the adoptive and biological parents (Healey 56). There could also be a formal agreement between the two sets of parents about how the infant should be cared for. The two sets of parents will communicate and exchange details regarding the infant through an open adoption. Open adoption provides an infant with an immediate family in which both the adoptive and birth parents are involved with the child’s existence. Despite the difficulties that come with open adoption, statistics show that it is becoming more common in the United States (Healey 60).

Closed adoption hides all identification information. No information on the biological parents, the child, or the adoptive parents is divulged to the other party. The biological parents never know who adopted their child while the adoptive parents also do not get to know the biological parents of their adopted child or children. To ensure total secrecy of the adoption process in the closed type of suggestion, there was a practice where parents who wanted their children adopted were asked to leave their babies somewhere where they can be picked and given to parents who want to adopt a child (Brodzinsky and Jesús 24). Closed type of adoption works best when the adopted child is still an infant. This ensures that the child has no knowledge of his/her biological. This is normally done to avoid distress among the adopted children because of being taken away from their families.

Legal Issues Involved With Adoption

A host of rules governing the adoption process have been passed by the federal government. One of the laws concerns the consent to adoption. The law provides that the biological parents are the one who possess the right to consent on the adoption of the child. However, in the absence of the parents, or in a situation where the parents are not a capacity to make decisions, other legal entities such as an agency that acts as the custodian, a guardian of the child and the ruling by the court. There are however also other instances where the adoption of a child can be revoked. The law allows the revocation of an adoption under certain circumstances (Verbrugge 95). One of the circumstances under which the law provides that the adoption is revoked is when the adoption is through fraud. This is can be a case where there is false provision of information pertaining the child or the parents. Another circumstance where revocation of an adoption is allowed by the law is when there is mutual consent between biological and adoptive parents that the adoption should be revoked. This works only under open adoption.

A judge may still seek to cancel an adoption if it is determined that it is not in the child’s best interests. For instance, adoption may affect a child negatively. This is especially if the child is adopted at an older age. If it is realized that the child is finding it hard to fit in the new family and it is stressing him/her, the court may allow the revoke of the adoption (Jerry & Bacon 78). Revocation of an adoption can also occur in a situation where there was an agreement between biological and adoptive parents that the adoption can be revoked within a certain period. If one of the parents feels that it is necessary to revoke the adoption within that time frame, then court allows for the adoption to be revoked.

Another law that pertains adoption is the infant safe haven law. This law provides that mothers can leave their babies at designated places for adoption. Throughout the US in all states, there are specific places where mothers can go and leave their babies if they wish their babies to be adopted. These places are known as safe havens for babies. The law provides that it is only mothers who can be allowed to take babies to the safe havens (Fisanick 74). This allows the babies to be given to good families for adoption. There are also laws that protect adopted children against child abuse. They include Adoption and Safe Families Act, Child Abuse Amendments, Child Abuse Prevention Act, and Keeping Children and Families Safe Act. These acts and laws are aimed at ensuring that children, whether adopted or living with their biological parents are protected from violence and abuse. Such laws ensure that adoptive parents do not abuse and mistreat their adopted children.

Ethical Issues in Adoption

Adoption has a number of ethical issues that normally emerge. In a society where adoption is an accepted practice, some people go to great lengths to adopt a child. This includes using dubious means to obtain a child. One of the ethical issues in child adoption in the American society is baby buying and selling. Some desperate couples resort to buying babies in the name of adoption (Verbrugge 34). Unscrupulous judges who give couples the go ahead to adopt children without even assessing their suitability as parents normally aid this. Other people also engage in baby trade in the pretense of offering their babies for adoption. Young women, for example, take advantage of this chance to profit from unexpected pregnancies. Young people get pregnant solely to sell their babies after they are born. Some dishonest individuals have turned the adoption problem into a corporation (Verbrugge 38).

There’s still the question of federal assistance. Adoptive parents often receive financial assistance from the federal government when they adopt an infant. Any citizens are taking advantage of this chance to take advantage of the government. Some pass themselves off as true adoptive parents. Any of them are eventually allowed to adopt an infant. However, their primary goal is to obtain welfare support rather than to adopt the boy. Such parents end up neglecting their adopted child because the money given to adoptive parents for fostering society’s unfortunate children is more important to them than the child (Brodzinsky and Jesus142). Adoption expenses have also been listed as an ethical concern in the adoption process. Adopters would pay the sliding rates in order to adopt an infant. Some contend, though, that this is a kind of baby sale since it entails the paying of a fee to adopt an infant. As a result, several states have outlawed this charge. In the state of Pennslavania, for example, couples do not have to pay anything to adopt an infant.

The problem of transracial adoption remains the most contentious topic in the adoption process. This subject has ignited a lot of debate on whether or not it is the right course of action. Couples raising children of different races was known as transracial adoption. This is particularly true for white parents who adopt children of other races. Some claim that in order to raise an infant, the parent must express unconditional affection to the child. Some contend that love alone is insufficient, especially when the adoptive child is of a different ethnicity. Transracial adoption proponents contend that there is little inconsistent with the procedure, claiming that infants will quickly transition to a situation in which their parents are of a different ethnicity (Hiber 96). They claim that it is the adoptive parents’ responsibility to guarantee that the adopted child blends in along with the rest of the family. They often contend that an adopted child, particularly if adopted at a young age, would not experience any lack of identification or culture. This is since, according to them, culture is not about an individual’s origins, but rather about the setting in which he or she is raised.

Opponents of transracial adoption contend that it separates the adoptive infant from his or her familiar life. As a consequence, the infant loses his or her culture and personality. Another effect of transracial adoption, according to this community, is emotional distress. They say that infants who are raised by parents of various races are usually overwhelmed when they grow up. This is because they are mindful of the gaps that exist between themselves and their adoptive parents (Brodzinsky and Jesus 37). This difference makes these children to start seeking for identity and this leads to distress. Other people see transracial adoption as a way for white people to get double benefits. These people view the move by white people to adopt children as a hypocritical way of trying to show that they are good and virtuous. These skeptical groups read mischief in this gesture rather than just a kind gesture of wanting to take care of an unfortunate child (Russell 93). Others go to an extent of claiming that this is a move to atone for the mistreatment the whites have subjected the black people to. Generally, the issue of adoption has resulted to a number of ethical issues and debates on how best the process should be carried out.

Apart from adoption that is done on children with their biological parents and abandoned children, there is also adoption from foster homes. Some people look for children in foster homes for adoption. Most of the children who end up in foster homes are the ones that were mostly abandoned or those who lived with abusive parents (Verbrugge 60). Some of the parents who give up their children to foster homes are drug addicts, making them unfit for taking care of these children. Some of these parents are forced by the government to relinquish their rights as parents (Verbrugge, 66).

Adoption from foster homes has also its benefits and challenges. One of the benefits is that it eases the burden of the government. The government spends a lot of money to run children homes. Adoption of these children therefore the burden on the government because the care shifts from the government to individuals.


In conclusion, adoption has become a part of everyday life especially in the American culture. A lot of children are adopted and raised in the normal families. Any of these children would have been abandoned and destitute if they hadn’t been adopted. Adoption takes legal processes meaning that it is being advocated by the government especially from the Acts mentioned in the paper. There are some advantages of adopting a child. However, there are few set backs especially on the issue of transracial adoption where critics argue that it removes these children from familiar environments. However, there have been several instances of effective transracial adoptions. All in all adoption is aimed at giving these kids a better life in a normal family. They grow in a healthy manner and eventually become responsible adults.

Works Cited
  • Brodzinsky, David, and Jesús Palacios. Psychological Issues in Adoption: Research and Practice. Westport: Praeger, 2005. Print. Brodzinsky, David M, Anne B. Dudley,
  • Fisanick, Christina. Issues in adoption. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Print.
  • Healey, Justin. Adoption Issues. Thirroul, N.S.W: The Spinney Press, 2011. Print.
  • Hiber, Amanda. Are Adoption Policies Fair? Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Print.
  • Jerry, Johnson. Allyn& Bacon Casebook series, ISBN 0205389546, xii, 122 Adoption, Social case work, Child welfare, Family social work 2007, Print.
  • Russell, Marlou. Adoption Wisdom: A Guide to the Issues and Feelings of Adoption. Santa   Monica, Calif: Broken Branch Productions, 2006. Print.
  • Verbrugge, Allen. Adoption. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven Press/Thomson Gale, 2006.   Print.

Trends of 3D Printing in Medical Industry

Trends of 3D Printing in Medical Industry


  • Content
  • Keywords
  • Introduction
  • Development of 3D Printing
    • Its Invention
    • The Trend of 3D Printing.
  • Dominant Companies in the 3D Printing Industry
  • Specific Application of 3D Printing in the Medical Industry
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendices


There have been tremendous advances to the manufacturing sector since the advent of 3D printing technology in the 1980s. This technology’s steady advancement has allowed the development of “ground-breaking” prototypes in the automobile, aerospace, medical, and other industries. Via the analysis of secondary sources, this study attempted to assess the effect of 3d printing in the medical industry. It was discovered that major advancements had been made in the development of human tissues, lungs, and body pieces. However, there have been significant problems in the longevity of certain organs as well as the growth of complex organs like the heart. However, there is enormous promise in this area, and medical researchers will undoubtedly continue to make groundbreaking discoveries.

Trends of 3D Printing in Medical Industry

Key Words

3D Printing: It is the method of turning computer models into 3D physical structures of some form. Often referred to as additive engineering.

Stereolithography: The technology that allows for the development of 3D plastic prototypes.

Product life cycle: An observational market paradigm that describes the phases of a commercial product’s development cycle.

Intellectual Property Rights: Rights obtained by a person due to a creation of their mind

Patents: Exclusive rights given to an inventor for limited periods in exchange for disclosure of the invention

Prototype: An initial sample of a product developed to test a process or a concept

Prosthetics: Artificial body parts


3D printing has had a great impact in the manufacturing industry throughout the years. For a long time, this technology was preserved for large businesses due to the prohibitive costs. However, in recent years the cost of lower-end printers has drastically reduced, bringing this technology to the mainstream. For instance, the cost of consumer-level printers has declined from $110,000 to a low of $350. These machines must have made their way into fashion catwalks, hospitals, kitchens, school and other institutions bringing immense changes in the world.

This research report seeks to identify the trend of 3D printing in the manufacturing technology currently and the influence it has had on the medical field. Therefore, the research shall utilize various secondary sources such as peer-reviewed journals and books to evaluate the trend, pricing, patents, IPRs, standards investigations, the product life cycle, and the future prospects of the 3D printing technology.

Development of 3D Printing

  • Its Invention

According to Corbett and Katz (2012), Charles Hull developed the stereolithography in 1984, which comprised a layered media that build up 3D objects from a digital file. However, this technology and its systems were very expensive and were largely used in the development of automotive, aerospace and medical products. One of the oldest 3D printing methods, which still remains popular, is SLA (Stereolithography) and is used in rapid prototyping. 3D Systems developed the method in 1992. Apart from creating prototypes for clients, the company also sells SLA machines for use in various enterprises and manufacturing. Other companies such as Stratasys also developed and patented the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) process used in 3D printing. There are numerous companies that provide cheap and quickly produced prototypes (Yu, 2010., p.10).

There are various real-life examples of projects that would have not materialized were it not for the invention of 3D printing. For instance, an engineering company Solid Concepts developed a 3D printed gun and has endeavoured to demonstrate that it works effectively as other guns from factories. The project coordinator has already proven that it can fire 50 rounds and plans to demonstrate that it can do 500 rounds (Daileda, 2013). On the other hand, DUS architects are in the process of developing a house using a purpose-built 60 metres tall printer. The developers have already started the production process and plan to complete the entire fascia by the end of the year (O’Ceallaigh, 2013).

In the medical field, patients could be saved the long waits for organ transplants with improvement in the development of 3D-printed organs. In the recent past, regenerative medicine experts have been able to develop tiny organ chunks. 3D printing technology has provided precision and speed in the development of replacement skin and body parts (Beane, 2010). These experts hope that eventually they will be able to develop full-size organs such as kidneys, livers and hearts. The use of 3D printing in medicine experiences varied levels of difficulties that range from the easiest being development of flat structures such as the skin, developing tubular structures such as blood vessels, hollow organs such as the stomach, to organs with many organ interactions and complex functions such as the heart. However, there was significant progress in 1999 when a group of medics developed and implanted bladders into a group of patients (Hsu, 2013).

With the increased confidence that medics could use 3D print human organs, a group of scientists from China initiated a program that resulted in the successful printing of several living kidneys in 2002. While printing in the past had been done using bio-ink, the replicated kidney tissue had was not vital. This necessitated the creation of living or vital organs, it would rule out the possibility of 3D printed transplants. Therefore, the Chinese breakthrough was significant. However, there were still reservations about the suitability of such organs for transplantation. Although they were living, they only had a lifespan that lasted four months, which was a hindrance to offering permanent solutions for patients with kidney failure (Druce-McFadden, 2013).

  • The Trend of 3D Printing

The recent developments in 3D printing has seen the development of phenomenal equipment that range from shoes, bikes, exoskeletons, clothes, skulls, guns, amongst many other things. Even President Obama has acknowledged that it is a revolutionary technology that everything operates and save his country’s economy. Recently, the hottest trends in 3D printing have involved experiments in making colossal objects. This involves huge time and money resources, which is a possible venture. However, the main challenge is the physical limitations of the existent 3D printers available in the market (Estes, n.d.).

Nonetheless, there have been significant and exciting innovations in 3D printing hardware. Young innovators are leading the way, especially college students that conducting experiments on devices with ‘out-of-the-box’ printing capacities. For instance, an approach that heavily borrows the robotic arms techniques, deposits polymers in a precise and organized manner rather than screwing or welding. Another method is named the MPTP (Mobile Printing Test Platform) that lumbers around the structure’s perimeter and pours material that makes the walls thus making layers of the structure. This forms the beginning of a revolutionary work by designers and architects. As the technology increases, their imagination is bound to explode and exponentially increase their ambition. Conversely, there has been a substantial increase in the attention that 3D printing as a topic attracts, as indicated below in this chart.

Trends of 3D Printing in Medical Industry

Figure 1: Google topic trends indicating increased attention in ‘3D printing’ http://disruptiveinnovation.se/?tag=3d-printing

In future, the 3D printing technology is expected to grow to allow the printing of precious metals such as gold. Furthermore, the various players should develop low-cost techniques for usage with commonly available materials such as plastic and paper. In the medical field, the technology’s growth should lead to the development of vital replacements human organs and body parts to be used in transplants. 3D printing is a relatively new industry that is bound to grow rapidly with the increasing adoption by different users. It is a highly competitive industry that stems from process knowledge, pricing, product development, and the capacity to match customers’ needs. Some of the major players include Stratasys, Objet, MakerBot, HP Development Co., 3D Systems and EOS GmbH. On the other hand, the global market in the 3D printing is forecasted to hit the 2.99 billion dollar mark by 2018 due to introduction of new applications, approaches and technologies (PRWeb, 2012). Therefore, 3D printing is still in the initial stages of the growth stage in its life cycle. As will be learnt, 3D’s success, especially in medical applications, is very much reliant on continuous research by established firms. In as such, very few medics or hospitals have been able to apply it to help in addressing variant health concerns by their patients. Notably, even with the development of such organs as kidneys and the heart, it is postulated that the technology will not be used to treat humans for at least 10 more years (International Conference Focusing on Polymers Used in the Medical Industry, & Rapra Technology Limited, 2001). This period will be used for proper and sufficient development of technology as is required for any curative or rehabilitative measure applied in humans. This lengthy period is also a result of the investors’ reluctance to commit their money in projects that are not likely to promise a continuous revenue stream for at least a decade. Such measures are likely to hinder the development. Overall, these factors point to a product that is yet to reach full market acceptance.  In the context of the product life cycle, this is a product that is yet to reach maturity and is very much still in the development phase.

Trends of 3D Printing in Medical Industry

Figure 2: 3D Printing Technology Product Life Cycle

Dominant Companies in the 3D Printing Industry

One of the most dominant firms that deal in 3D printing in medical research and practice is Organovo. The company develops human tissues through its bioprinting system that enables it to create 3D tissues that suitably reproduces native tissues. Its bio-printing technology is based on an automated platform that allows fabrication, testing and systematic identification of tissue geometrics in order to select a winning combination through functional and histological results (PRWeb, 2012). It focuses on the development of various disease models and tissues for therapeutic or research uses. So far, Organovo has been able to produce liver-tissue prototypes that have similar features to the original tissues. However, their liver tissues can only be live for five days. The company’s ultimate objective is to develop a full-size human liver. However, Organovo, just like other 3D printing companies, have to use cells from the patient in question to make sure that the ‘outcome’ is fully compatible with the body system (Organovo, n.d.).

Organovo has a management team that has a combined experience of over 100 years in the industry. The management’s aim is to introduce drastic changes and be a leading innovation company in medical research. Currently, Organovo is experimenting with the 3D printing of blood vessels with a diameter of one millimetre. The company boasts of an enviable group of scientific advisers under its employment. This group consists of numerous scientific pioneers who have specialized in the field of tissue engineering. This group of advisors has published more than 600 journal articles on this topic between them. However, the company still faces some limitations in the lack of stable and safe materials and the availability of cells. The complex vascular structure made up of blood, organs, and tissues also presents a difficult environment for the developed tissues and organs to survive in the human body.

Specific Application of 3D Printing in the Medical Industry

Apart from the development of human tissues, the 3D printing technology has been instrumental in the creation of body parts. For instance, medical practitioners have been able to develop an artificial ear for the treatment of congenital deformities such as microtia, which results from underdeveloped ears or replacing parts of an ear that have been lost through an accident or ailment. This provides a wonderful alternative to rib grafts that are normally painful, and results in-ears that are neither natural-looking functional. In this case, a normal human ear is scanned and a mould developed using the 3D printer. The mould is then injected with collagen that forms the scaffold for the development of cartilage (Chalcraft, 2013).

Additionally, this technology has been applied in the healthcare industry for some while. For instance, various firms have developed custom hearing aids as well as in the creation of alternatives to stationary dental brace (Gibson, 2006.p.61). For instance, Invisalign is a company that develops these alternatives and prints about 60,000 sets of custom-made moulds each day that a wearer can change fortnightly to realign their teeth. Furthermore, the technology has also found another application as a visualization tool in the planning stages of a surgery procedure. For instance, doctors can scan a fractured arm or a heart and print it to allow them to study the anatomy before the actual operation (Analoui, 2012.p.12-15). Additionally, there has been a case where an old lady obtained a new jaw after losing it to an infection. This was a good reprieve for the octogenarian who could not undergo reconstructive surgery because of her advanced age.

3D printing technology has immense potential to disabled persons. For example, Magic Arms has developed assistive devices that assist a child who was born with arthrogryposis to use her hands. This technology has widely revolutionized the use of prosthetics (Beutel et al 2000.p.128). Currently, various 3D printed prosthetics coverings can be personalized and worn with the existent prosthetic. In this case, the complete leg is scanned to make sure the covering is symmetrical, and the customization is performed to ensure basic fairing (Chalcraft, 2013).


3D printing technology has immensely influenced the manufacturing industry, although it is still at the initial stages of the growth stage in its product life cycle. As noted in this study, the application of 3D technology in the medical industry has helped greatly in designing human body parts such as prosthetic limbs, repairing the skin, designing skulls, among other human organs. These have proved to be very efficient considered to formative means of organ development or replacement. Going forward, there is cause for excitement as the design and development of live organs such as the heart takes centre stage. We can all envision a situation where implants will be possible without the current level of effort and strain. The clearest thing now is that 3D technology is bound to have a much greater impact in the medical field that it is presently the case.

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Export Strategy for Avocados Export Company

Export Strategy for Avocados Export Company

Table of Contents

  • Brief Synopsis of the Issue
  • Recommendations
  • Background
  • Research on the Assessment Topic
  • Arguments in Support of the Recommendation(s)
  • Arguments Against the Recommendation(s)
  • Implementation of the Recommendations
  • References

Brief Synopsis of the Issue

Auspak Avocados, trading as Avocados Export Company (AEC) is one of the biggest exporters of fresh quality avocados to the international business markets. The company operates its business in various regions of the world and might tend to expand its business in Netherlands due to its stronger financial condition and also for raising need of nutritious fruits in the nation. AEC has been given several recommendations in order for it to be competitive in exporting avocados to the Dutch business markets. Furthermore, some challenges that the company could face when exporting the fruit have been depicted, especially in the Dutch business sector. It can be seen that if the above guidelines are followed to the letter, AEC would be able to export avocados to the Netherlands’ business markets with maximum viability and productivity.


AEC may wish to extend its operations in other parts of the world after demonstrating its ability and broad capture of the Middle and South-East Asian business sector. In a similar vein, an export strategy for the company’s plan to export avocado to a specific European country, such as the Netherlands, will be produced. The Netherlands is often regarded as one of the world’s wealthiest countries, with a higher per capita income. These factors combine to render the Netherlands an unattractive export destination, especially for health-related products such as avocado. Even comparison to other vegetables, avocado is unquestionably one of the most healthy. Considering that most countries search out nutritious food goods, the Netherlands may be an ideal location for the export of fresh avocados. The Dutch citizens are also known to be health-conscious, which has led to AEC’s support for exporting this commodity to the targeted European country of Netherlands. It seems that both countries have improved foreign trading relations, which would help in the export of the commodity to the desired country (CBI Market Information Database, n.d.).

Export Strategy for Avocados Export Company


Auspak Avocados, a company based in Australia, was founded in 2009 with the goal of being a market leader, especially in the export of fresh avocados from Australia. Avocados Export Company (AEC) is based in Brisbane, Queensland, and is operated by a consortium of avocado producers, packers, and marketers from around Australia. In order to ensure greater consumer loyalty, the firm has been shown to recruit technology-driven suppliers and use new manufacturing facilities. The corporation prefers to establish and maintain effective corporate relationships built on mutual confidence and respect. With a focus on exporting fresh avocados to foreign business markets, the firm accounts for approximately 60% of Australian avocado supply. The AEC has established itself as a major player in Asia’s South and Middle East regions. Furthermore, in terms of production, cost, and availability of avocados to foreign customers, in the export market, the company has developed itself as a global pioneer. The high quality of Australian avocados indicates a high market for this fruit in all parts of the world. Avocados are also being exported from AEC to Singapore, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The company’s distribution infrastructure has helped it become a dependable year-round supplier of high-quality avocados. In order to guarantee the delivery of high-quality goods to consumers all around the globe, the organization employs effective tactics. Year-round supply, direct shipping of avocados from packers, labeling and packing the stock according to consumer desires, and introducing an automated supply chain protocol are among these techniques (Auspak Avocados, 2011).

Research on the Assessment Topic 

Arguments in Support of the Recommendation(s)

As previously mentioned, Netherlands is regarded as one of the richest nations throughout the globe due to its greater per-capita income and broader conduct of international trade. Specially mentioning, the nation possesses a prosperous and an open economy, relying largely upon performing foreign trades effectively. The economy of Netherlands has broadly been impacted by unchanging industrial relations, low employment and inflation (Central Intelligence Agency, 2013). It can be affirmed that all these significant factors eventually contribute in making the nation an idle place for conducting business and international trade (The World Bank, 2013). Based on the above analysis made regarding the economy of Netherlands, it can be concluded that through having a strong economy and high per capita income, the people belonging to Netherlands can afford in purchasing high quality and costly fruits like avocado. Also, the people of Netherlands are viewed to be health and nutrition conscious, which would eventually result in raising the demand of avocado in the respective business markets of the nation. According to the report published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Netherlands, the public consumption of avocados in the year 2010 was 30 thousand tonnes, indicating a huge demand and market for this particular fruit. However, this consumption reduced in the years 2008 and 2009 and gradually increased in the year 2010 (CBI Market Information Database, n.d.).

Netherlands, being vastly reliant on foreign trade possesses a direct interest and a tendency to seek a stable international legal order. Both the countries are often found to exchange their values along with views and maintain a better affiliation with each other despite of facing wide assortment of global issues. Correspondingly, Australia and Netherlands have several common international trade policies. Thus, it can be affirmed that the above discussed facets would ultimately impose considerable impact upon AEC towards exporting avocado in diverse business markets of Netherlands (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, n.d.). 

Arguments Against the Recommendation(s)

As a result of the preceding debate, it can be affirmed that the financial standing of Netherlands would provide active support to AEC in exporting along with marketing avocados especially in the Dutch business markets. However, certain crucial concerns might hinder the company towards successfully exporting the fruit in the business markets of the respective region. In this regard, one of the imperative concerns is the price. It can be viewed in this similar concern that the price of avocados is kept on fluctuating in Netherlands. For example, the price of avocados in the year 2010 was amounted to € 1.41 per kilo. After this period, the price of avocados has increased every year by 2.8% per kilo. Based on the fluctuating price, the traders used to drop down their prices of avocados and clear the stocks that are made available in their respective stores. However, if AEC start exporting avocados to Netherlands, the fear of falling down in the prices of this fruit can affect the performance of the company. Moreover, if the price of avocados falls down extensively, AEC might face a huge loss. Therefore, the fluctuating price of the fruit can be duly considered as one of the major challenges that AEC might face while exporting the fruit to the business markets of Netherlands. Specially mentioning, apart from price, the significant concern of quality can also affect AEC in exporting avocados to Netherlands successfully. It can be said in this regard that any quality problem may prevent avocado suppliers and growers from continuing to export their product. The increased level of business market competition might also hinder AEC towards successfully exporting avocados in the business markets of Netherlands. As avocados are not produced in Netherlands, a huge number of importers are often observed to remain active in the nation. In Netherlands, avocados are often viewed to be sold by the retail chains. These chains can provide a tough competition to the external players like AEC. Thus, it can be affirmed that if AEC desire to penetrate into the Dutch market in the form of exporting avocados, the company require addressing along with mitigating the above discussed crucial factors by a considerable extent (CBI Market Information Database, n.d.).

Implementation of the Recommendations

As per the above analysis, it can be affirmed that AEC might face certain critical challenges while exporting avocados in the business markets of Netherlands. These challenges can be related to price, quality and most vitally intensified business market competition among others. As both the countries possess better trade relations and exchanges their own values along with beliefs, it is quite possible to mitigate the above identified challenges by a certain degree. As per the export strategy in relation to price, AEC can opt for penetration pricing strategy by taking into concern the fluctuating prices of avocados in the business markets of Netherlands. This particular strategy would eventually support the company towards exporting huge volume of avocados in the respective nation having low margins. With regard to export strategy linked with quality, AEC can opt for making ethical decisions by taking into concern any sort of ethical issue persisting in the process of exporting avocados in the business markets of Netherlands. In order to cope up with the challenge regarding intensified business market competition, the company can evaluate and analyse the financial, competitive and legal along with political conditions of the nation and formulate suitable strategies accordingly.  It is worth mentioning that AEC must form and develop effective logistics system, supply chain procedure along with performing cross-border collaboration with the intention of distributing avocados in the business markets of Netherlands effectively (Kumar, 2005).

  • Auspak Avocados, 2011. Our Company. Home. [Online] Available at: http://www.avozexports.com/index-1.html [Accessed December 17, 2013].
  • CBI Market Information Database, No Date. Fresh Avocados in The Netherlands. Ministery of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. [Online] Available at: http://www.cbi.eu/system/files/marketintel/2011_Fresh_avocados_in_The_Netherlands.pdf [Accessed December 17, 2013].
  • Central Intelligence Agency, 2013. The World Fact Book. Netherlands. [Online] Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nl.html#Econ [Accessed December 17, 2013].
  • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, No Date. Netherlands Country Brief. Australian Government. [Online] Available at: http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/netherlands/netherlands_country_brief.html/ [Accessed December 17, 2013].
  • Kumar, A., 2005. Export and Import Management. Excel Books India.\
  • The World Bank, 2013. Ease of Doing Business in Netherlands. International Finance Corporation. [Online] Available at: http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/netherlands/[Accessed December 17, 2013].

Role of Tourism Industry in Mexican Economy

Role of Tourism Industry in Mexican Economy

Tourism industry plays a critical role in the Mexican economy. In the more recent past, it has moved to various positions in consideration to its contribution to the economy. Currently standing as the third largest revenue contributor to the government, its role is invincible in relation to the economic growth by the year 2018.The Mexican GDP is focused to rise to about 9.4 percent by the elapse of President’s Enrique regime. According to the minister for tourism Claudia, the industry that employs up to seven million Mexican is destined to witness upward growth especially from tourist influx from countries such as those from the North of America.

In a candid remark, Ruiz claims that the industry will add a point to its current position, a factor that would possibly put it as Mexico’s second largest revenue contributor. The industry made 12.7 billion dollars in foreign exchange last year. This is according to a survey by JP Morgan and Company. Currently, the sector lags behind the energy and construction industries. In the past year, the second highest performing economy in Latin America received a total of twenty-four million visitors (Mente 23-25).

Role of Tourism Industry in Mexican Economy

This figure represents a 2.6 trillion improvement over the amount of visits seen in the previous year. According to reports from the World Tourism Organization, the number of visitors visiting the world has recently surpassed one billion. In what is generally referred to as foreign visits abroad, a 4.1 percent rise has been reported. According to the World Tourism survey, visitors to advanced economies increased by 3.6 percent. Tourism plays a significant part in the Mexican economy. It raises the amount of money invested, the number of jobs created, and the amount of money that can be earned. According to reports, it often generates one job prospect out of every eleven.

The industry’s contributions to the Mexican economy are extensive because it not only creates jobs but also stimulates the growth of the local area. In a similar vein, the industry disseminates critical knowledge about the country’s natural and cultural attractions. The benefit stems from the variety of options available to tourists throughout the region. The pre-Columbian culture history and the inclusion of archeological sites as important markers of the country’s identity are two of the most significant. On top of that, the nation boasts a variety of beaches as well as the incorporation of millenary cultures into its main cities. The nation is exceptional and excellent because of its historical characteristics, natural aesthetics, and dynamic technology. (Mark 31:31-33).

Global statistics indicate that Mexico takes position 10 in reference to the number of foreign tourists visiting the country. This position to be maintained has elicited promotional efforts by the government to enable it consolidate its command. This according to the government is the only way to ensure sustainability in line with meeting and coping up with the ever-increasing option of the country as the preferred destination for tourist. The government puts a lot of concentration in the different dynamics of the tourism industry. These include, coming up with a clear definition of tourism activities, comparing the input of various kinds of tourism to Mexican economy and development strategy in relation tourism.Currently, key focus is placed on purpose built and spontaneous resorts and ecotourism including its sustainability concept (Kutting 75-77). The government and various bodies are encouraging residential tourism a new approach that plays a critical role in the industry especially for the Mexican citizens.

The other aspect to be conspired when talking about the Mexican tourism industry is its all year round favorable climate. The weather is attractive all through the year since the climate in the country is determined vertically instead of horizontally. The average hours of sunshine compared to other areas of the world places Mexico above board.Recognitaion of the invincible role the industry plays has made the(FTB) Federal Tourist Bureau through the ministry of interior invest on advertisement both in America and other States of the world. The industry has led to the development of other ministries of the Mexican government such as that of Infrastructure and Transport. This is inclined to the obvious reasons that effective transport system is a needed asset for easy and faster movement of the tourist.

For this reason, the government has heavily invested in transport and infrastructure, which as indirectly boosted the growth of agriculture and even the import and the export industries. The airport plays a significant role since they have been constructed to world-class standards an eventuality that attracts not only tourist but also investors. The efforts of government to encourage ecotourism have been a positive game changer in the Industry. Currently tourist takes part in a activities that are beneficial to the environment. This in some other terms is referred to as green tourism. Considering the aftermaths of calamities such as the hurricanes, the industry has invested in informative tourism activities to enlighten the consumers with beneficial knowledge on the environment (Amalia 33-34).

In relation to other far-reaching benefits of tourism, the Mexican population has managed to acquire gainful employment because of the lucrative tourism industry. For instance, several hotels, curio shops, museums, and sporting activities have all been nourished by the busy tourism activities. According to the government report, employment has brought down different instances of crime levels in the society particularly in the area of illegal trade. Illegal trade has been a lifetime challenge particularly as far as trafficking of narcotics and firearms are concerned. The Ministry dealing with energy has equally benefited from the vibrant tourism industry. High influx of tourists translates to increased travel activities resulting to double demand of petroleum products such as fuel, electricity, and alternative forms of energy. Such a scenario because of increased consumption of energy products lead to enhanced revenue collection of the specific industry, which is beneficial to the entire economic growth.

In the agricultural sector, the influx would mean more need for food a factor that would in turn instigate increased production. Increased production would mean involving additional labor in order to meet the food demand on time. This indirectly offers employment to the Mexican population who finally pay revenue to the central government. The trend also ensures that adequate food is produced  and this has got a long term benefits to the country based on the fact that it enables it to have a reliable food security systems.

Mexico’s Share

According to Ruiz, the Mexican government is determined to expand its market share to its traditional markets, which mainly targets Canada and the United States. This is done while at the same time putting focus on prospective potential markets such as Argentina, Russia, china and Brazil. Through projection, this would register a record number of visits by the end of the year 2013.The influx of international travelers though comes at a time when close to 6200 people have perished in drug connected violence. This has been since Nieto took up office as reported by Milenio, a Mexican based print newspaper.

A press statement issued by the Mexican envoy to the United States clarified that its government approaches to combat organized crime are likely to take long term methodologies since most of them are inclined to institutional build up.However,he clarified that the number of victims are rapidly dropping.

Additional Economic Initiatives

Nieto has revealed that they are pushing for legislative changes by the elapse of the year to enable the realization of an energy industry controlled by the state. This according to him would enhance revenue collection with a margin of 6% annually. They also labor to concentrate more effort in private tourism industry.Similarly; the government is to unveil a comprehensive infrastructure strategy for the first time cover tourism development. The strategy seeks to build additional airports, commercial and cargo ports, highways, railway links, and competitive transport hubs.

2013 Spending

Ruiz has further revealed that the Mexican government has committed 23.3 billion dollars in infracstructure.He has further assured investors that the ministry of transport and communication would give statement soonest time possible concerning decongestion measures that would be taken at the City airport.

General Requirements

Similarly, a number of requirements for non-Mexican citizens is one area that the government tries to enlighten prospective visitors about. In the instance, that one is either a Canadian or a United States Citizen, the law requires that a visitor must obtain a passport and an identity card from the embassy in most of the occasions. Posing the passport enables a visitor to gain entry faster than the person who does not have one and also ensures that their stay in Mexico is not characterized by frequent disruptions from the authorities (Ryan 51-52).


Upon getting into Mexico, one is required to pass through the customs and fill in the relevant details. This form is normally issued by the plane crew or the ship crew.Altenatively,it can also be obtained at border points just before entry. Visitors are advised that they should always be keen as they fill in their details in these forms since incase of a random search from authorities, they would not feel harassed. Filling in misleading information about the individual amounts to a criminal offense, which is punishable by law.

Obligation to declare covers both individuals,representaivies aligned to foreign corporations and also the staff of international organizations.Additionally,it is important to clarify what the Mexican government accepts as personal luggage as one gains entry to Mexico (Costas 97-99).

  1. Goods for personal use such as used or new clothing, hygiene products, footwear provided that they are relevant with the time frame of the trip and there is convincing reason that the owner does not intend to sell them for business purposes within Mexico.
  2. Single video recorder and a camera if necessary together with their power sources. Under this section are also cellular phone apparatus. Sports equipment are allowed but restricted to the capacity of them being carried by only one person.
  3. Magazines and books are also allowed but with no intention to commercialization.

Outlining the requirements is essential in that they paint a rough picture of what the entire tourism expedition entail. In various occasions, some tourists have failed to carry out adequate research on what is needed and what is prohibited in every country they visit. Making assumptions that what is acceptable in ones state is also acceptable in Mexico is a wrong judgment thus the government of Mexico have put additional time in sensitizing its international vistors.Such a scenario is necessitated by the fact that Mexico as a country has its own unique laws that may not be applicable to other states. In the event of visiting the country, it is of significance for visitors to strive in keeping up with the laws of the land. The government of Mexico therefore has put in steps to ensure that clearance of tourists at entry points despite done in a thorough manner respects rights of tourists. This limits instances if embarrassment and the feeling of being mishandled by security authorities (World Tourism Organization 43-47).

In concusion, the tourism industry plays a vital role in the development of various economies of the world. This applies to Mexico as well which has witnessed an impressive growth courtesy of the lucrative industry. In order to sustain this trend and consolidate its presence in global tourism, the government has invested immensely in several segments to enable efficiency. Heavy investment amounting to billions of dollars has been pumped into infrastructure projects to ease travel and movement both by air and road. The industry has also affected other sectors of the economy such as the ministry dealing with agriculture a scenario, which has boosted food security in the country. Even more positive is that employment opportunities that have resulted from tourism has played a key role in reducing crime levels especially the perennial drug trafficking menace.Developement and investing in eco tourism has increased environmental awareness enabling more knowledge on environmental matters and how to respond to various calamities. This is in line with the hurricane disaster an occurrence, which the government has done a remarkable work in trying to limit chances of recurrence. As projections indicate, the industry has the potential of being the number one foreign exchange earner to the Mexican government if its full potential is to be exploited.

Work Cited
  • Mente, Boye.Romantic Mexico!: The Image & the Realities! (Cultural Insight Guide).New York: University of Hawaii. 2009. Print.
  • Mak, James. Tourism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2003. Print.
  • Kutting, Gabriella. The. London: Common Wealth Secretariat. London: Wales. 2010. Print.
  • Amalia, Cabezas. Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic . New York: Temple University Press. 2009. Print.
  • Mark, Hampton.Tourism and Inclusive Growth in Small Island Developing States. New York: Kindle books. 2013. Print.
  • Ryan, Chris. Tourism in China: Destination, Cultures, and Communities (Routledge Advances in  Tourism).New York: Routledge. 2008. Print.
  • Costas, Spirou. Urban Tourism and Urban Change: Cities in a Global Economy (The Metropolis and Modern Life).New York: Kindle books. 2010. Print.
  • World Tourism Organizations. Tourism by World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).New York: World Tourism Organization. 2012. Print.

Hospital Care Supply and Demand in the United States

Hospital Care Supply and Demand in the United States

The Supply and Demand for Hospital Care in the United States

Health care in the United States is majorly operated by the private sector. Although several distinct organizations have a stake in the United States health care, statistics indicates that 62 percent of the hospitals are under non-profit organizations while 20 percent are operated by the government. The rest of the hospitals are operated by profit-making organizations. Most of the US population is insured either by their family members or their own insurance schemes. Nevertheless, there are people who lack insurance cover despite the government’s provision of insurance for employees in the public sector. Several aspects influence the availability and demand for hospital services in the United States. Person wealth and expectations, for example, have an effect on patient treatment usage. It is well known that a physician shortage, the presence of uninsured citizens, and government policies all have a substantial impact on the availability of hospital services in the region. The aim of this paper is to investigate how these influences influence the availability and efficiency of health care in the United States (David, 2009).

Income of Individuals and Their Preferences 

Person salaries enable people to access medical services. As a result, the need for hospital services among working people is significantly higher. It is well known that individuals would seek the health services that they can afford. In this regard, the higher a person’s salary is, the greater their need for high-quality hospital services. Patients’ appetite for hospital treatment is claimed to be affected by physicians in health economics since they know all about the patients’ situation. They inform patients of the various medical services accessible to them at any particular moment, as well as when to get treatment. It is also the patient’s duty to secure funding for the quality of care they need. As a result, the physician’s preferences often take precedence over the patient’s. Nonetheless, the patients get the final word and, in the end, they will be the ones to compensate for any care are provided to them. As a result, demand for hospital treatment is determined by people’s individual incomes and physician choices. In the United States, this is the truth of health economics (Kavitha, 2013). Physicians may advise patients about the best hospital services appropriate for them depending on their socioeconomic status, based on their qualifications and practice. Any physician would be irresponsible if he or she advised a patient to get medical coverage from high-income treatment centers if the patient could not manage it. This is why they must provide their patients with a variety of choices to choose from. According to a study conducted by the National Bureau of Economic Studies in 2012, more patients obtain hospital services in states where the average wage is significantly higher. Despite the fact that it is a necessary need, a shortage of funds severely hinders the achievement of high-quality healthcare. People with chronic diseases are also the most affected and they will deal with them for a long time. People also do not consider it necessary to get emergency treatment since they are not completely incapacitating. They consistently push the demands back in order to focus on more urgent issues such as housing. This is particularly true for low-income earners who must make difficult decisions. Finally, the consistency of their welfare is jeopardized as their conditions worsen over time. This helps to understand why higher wages are needed to meet the need for better health care (David, 2009).

Hospital Care Supply and Demand in the United States

Insurance Coverage

In the United States, the need for hospital treatment is very strong among the covered. People are currently eager to take advantage of the government’s insurance compensation program to get their own insurance policies, according to a study undertaken at Princeton University. Quite a number of uninsured populations have shown willingness to pay for their own insurance as this would enable them access the right quality of hospital care, even in emergency situations. This has been outlined as the greatest achievement of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. Principally, the research found out that 60 percent of citizens who currently lack insurance cover will most likely buy one by the year 2014 for an average cost of $2,000. Notably, the government subsidies under the Affordable Care Act will ensure that 39 million more American get insurance cover by 2014. This is expected to increase the demand for hospital care in the United States given that high cost of healthcare has been the greatest hindrance for most people (Peter, 2001).

With the increased availability of low-cost insurance plans, more people are currently purchasing their own insurance cover. This will in turn increase the demand for hospital care in the United States as more people will be able to afford.  It goes without mentioning that acquisition of insurance cover is an important pillar in the country’s pursuit of hospital care. Researchers maintain that similar policies as the Affordable Care Act of 2010 will significantly increase access to health care. It is important to note that the policy has enabled many poor people to take advantage of the subsidized insurance plan. In this manner, they have been able to access the same quality of hospital care that business executives can purchase for themselves. Basically, people who have an insurance cover do not feel the economic burden of health care. Thus, their demand for hospital care rises tremendously as a result. This reality should be well understood by the policy makers in the United States in order to formulate other policies that will increase access to hospital care in the country (Kavitha, 2013).

Presence of Uninsured

The need for hospital coverage among the uninsured in the United States has been somewhat constant over time. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 came close to reversing the pattern. The Act stipulates that all citizens should ideally get an insurance cover. In light of this, the state has made provisions to enable citizens to access insurance cover more affordably. According to recent research, focus has shifted from people’s response to the call to get insurance plan outside the workplace to the traditional employer-provided cover. This is due to the fact of relative affordability of the conventional insurance cover. Notably, people have responded generally well to the call to acquire an insurance cover as it is important to accessing quality healthcare. Indeed, illness strikes when it is least expected and may totally incapacitate individuals to the extent of not being able to raise any immediate funds. This makes it imperative to have alternative sources of funding for people’s health bills. It principally assures people of constant access to quality care without being able to foot the medical bills from once savings (David, 2009).

The supply of hospital care to uninsured populations has remained quite low over time. This is due to the fact of the high risk involved in treating this population, especially with respect to their ability to pay. Most healthcare providers prefer people who have an insurance cover because they are sure the bills will eventually be paid by their insurer. Although the largest healthcare providers in the United States are non-profit organizations, they also require the basic payment to run their facilities. This explains why they also insist on patients’ ability to pay their medical bills. Indeed, these health organization would certainly grind to a halt they treated patients free of charge. According to World Health Organization, people’s demand for hospital care significantly depends on their ability to pay. In this regard, uninsured populations usually demand less of hospital care as compared to the insured. Perhaps, this is why the government has insisted on the acquisition of insurance cover by all citizens. Indeed, this would be the only way to overcome the ever-increasing cost of healthcare in the United States (Peter, 2001).

Managed Care Organizations

Managed Care Organizations are a set of organizations that have been established to provide specialized care to specific populations. For instance, some are made up of physicians, pharmacists or advanced practice nurses. They are specifically set up to improve the quality of health care by either focusing on health facilities or the health practitioners. For instance, the state may opt to provide incentives to medical staff with a view to boosting their morale and hence improve their delivery. Eventually, some of the provisions of managed care organizations are adopted in the health sector in general. This has the benefit of increasing the quality of hospital care and a reduction in the cost. As a result, the demand for health care will increase as more people would be able to afford the country’s health care. The introduction of managed care in the United States emanated from the Health Maintenance Organizations Act, 1973. While critics argue that it has had little impact on the country’s health care delivery, proponents maintain that managed care organizations have been beneficial to the country. Due to the fact of increased quality of health care arising from managed care plan, it goes without mentioning that it increases the overall demand for hospital care (Kavitha, 2013).

Shortage of Physicians

Shortage of physicians is likely to adversely affect the demand for hospital care. It is postulated that there will be a shortage of 91,500 physicians in the country by 2020. It is a reality that may come as a real disappointment to people provided that the Affordable Care Act of 2010 stays intact. Initially, the demand for hospital care will be relatively higher compared to the supply of medical staff. This is due to the fact that most of the current physicians will retire by 2019 while the enrolment in medical schools has steadily remained low. Thus, it will get to a point where the demand for hospital care will not match the availability of medical staff to attend to patients. As a result, the quality of hospital care will tremendously decrease leading to fewer people seeking medical attention. It should, however, be noted that these projections are based on past patterns that are likely to change at some point in time (Peter, 2001).

The shortage of physicians is also expected to rise from maldistribution of medical personnel in the country. At the moment, most of the country’s health workforce is concentrated in cities, leaving only a few working in the rural areas. According to recent research by the Princeton University, fewer medical students are interested in primary care. Most of them prefer to go for training in specialized care. This means that the country is likely to have more specialist doctors and only a few physicians. The eminent shortage of physicians will reduce the quality of primary care and eventually increase the cost of hospital care. This means only a few people will be able to afford to pay for their hospital care. As a result, the demand for hospital care will tremendously reduce. Basically, the country has to train more nurses and clinicians to fill the gap. This way, considerable stability will be achieved in the country’s health care (Kavitha, 2013).

Government Regulation of Hospitals

The government has set out regulations in the way hospitals are managed. For instance, several measures have been put in place to ensure that contracts and tenders issued by the hospitals for supply of medical equipment and other requisite facilities are done in a transparent manner. This has led to the improvement of hospital care in the country as hospitals get quality for their funds spent in the purchase of medical equipment. In other cases, the government has put in place regulations to streamline admission and patients’ stay in the hospital. As a result, the level of patient satisfaction increases tremendously. Nevertheless, there have been regulations that increased the cost of health care in the country. For instance, high taxes imposed on imported raw materials to be used in the pharmaceutical industry. This translates to increased cost of the medicines and therefore, higher cost of health care in general. It should however be noted that government regulations have been beneficial to the general public and increased the quality of health care in the country. Thus, it can be safely said that regulations by the government on hospitals generally increase the quality of health and hence the demand of hospital care in the country (David, 2009).

In conclusion, health care in the United States is majorly operated by private sector. Since their individual wages enable them to access medical care, the demand for hospital care among the affluent is significantly greater than that of the unemployed. It should however, be noted that patients’ preferences do not significantly affect their demand for hospital care as the final decision is usually made on their behalf by their physicians. The demand for hospital care is considerably higher among the insured in the United States as they can afford hospital care, courtesy of their insurance cover. However, the presence of uninsured persons reduces this demand. On the other hand, the supply of hospital care has been said to be increased by managed care organizations and government regulations. These basically ensure that medical staff get better terms of service and thus become more motivated to offer high quality hospital care. Eventually, the demand also increases as more people seek the better services offered by the highly motivated medical personnel. The availability of insurance cover is the single most important factor that affects demand for hospital care. This is because people will visit the hospital as much as they wish if they insurance company will pay the bill. Essentially, the demand shoots as the immediate seekers of health care do not pay the bills they incur.

  • David, C. (2009). New study finds 45,000 deaths annually linked to lack of health coverage. Harvard Gazette.
  • Kavitha, A. D. (2013). The Most Efficient Health Care Systems in the World. The Huffington Post.
  • Peter, R. K. (2001). The Managed Health Care Handbook. London: Aspen Publishers, Inc.

J Sainsbury PLC Strategic SWOT Analysis

J Sainsbury PLC Strategic SWOT Analysis

Executive Summary

The report presents an analysis of a company titled “J Sainbury PLC”.  The intention of this study is on conservation and business conjectures, containing recommendations for the organization’s up-gradation and configuration. Actually, the report contains the Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis of the company. The SWOT analysis counting assessment of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and modest threats is finished to comprehend the situation of the company within its definite business place and in contrast with further corporations. This helps us to engross in a business scenario design and recommend substitute strategies ensuring a comprehensive market appraisal. Later in the document contains the endorsements for the modifications in the structure of the organization, bearing in mind the finest probable manner of handling the business collection and human possessions. An investigation is commenced with the financial assets and broad-spectrum corporation possessions as well as product expansion founded on the gaining of innovative understanding (Augustin, 2011). Consequently, the document recommends designing the impression of strategic alteration in operational administration, and scrutinizes any global plans for the firm. Precisely, this analysis offers in depth strategic SWOT analysis of the corporation’s businesses and operations. The firm’s explanation delivers a perfect and impartial opinion of the company’s key strengths and weaknesses and the prospective opportunities and threats. This will aid to express strategies that supplement the trade by allowing you to comprehend their followers, patrons and competitors better.


Sainsbury was established in 1869 and nowadays functioning in over 1,106 hypermarkets and suitability stores. The company has around 157,000 employees in all over the World. The slogan of the company is that we (the company) place our clients at the heart of the whole thing we fix and have devoted in their stores, their contemporaries and their channels to distribute the greatest likely shopping experience. Their resilient philosophy and values are the part of their uniqueness and essential to their success (Rowley, 2003).

Core values

The core values of the company are given as:

  • Accomplishment improved every day – the company emphasizes on enlightening its facilities.
  • Countless services drive sales, however, there is a condition that better provision is pointing to higher sales.
  • Discrete accountability team delivery even though teamwork is invigorated, right a distinct in the firm has accountability in the conference service standards.
  • Retain it modest, humble and well-organized services are obtainable (j–Sainsbury, 2013).
  • Admiration for the discrete employee – each discrete worker within the company is appreciated for his extravagance services. The income of the business is intended for dissemination and improvement of the corporation (Yong, James, Kevin, and Donna, 2011,).

J Sainsbury PLC Strategic SWOT Analysis


The values of the J Sainsbury are the section of their extended-term strategy of development. The company is ready to review and reinforce their strategy, in order to create a decent business sense and provision of an actual competitive benefit (Wrigley, 2000).

Business Performance

The J Sainsbury has had one more efficacious year, outdoing the flea market in what residue a hard trading atmosphere. Their segment of the grocery shop is the uppermost for an era at 16.8% and they are at the moment the UK’s second major grocer ensuing 35 uninterrupted quarters of like for like sales progress. We endure to aid customers Live Well for Less and stared like for like auctions up 1.45 for the 28 weeks up to 28 the September 2013 (Francis, 2011).

Business case 

The J Sainsbury recognizes as true as their values and their 20 x 20 sustainability obligations play an immense part in their accomplishment. They deliver opportunities for the employees to discriminate themselves with client, dealers, contemporaries and other stakeholders. The vital portion of their strategy is constructed on developing assemblies and procedures to carry out the work properly. For example, since 2007 the J Sainsbury deliberately participated in energy decrease and renewable energy schemes in their supermarkets and expediency stores. Every single year they make evident that the projects will accomplish their internal financial obstacle rate, contending with further areas of the trade for funds. Each year they drive, charge and carbon diminutions attained are dignified over and done with a project venture review. And by undertaking this procedure, the Investment Board members have soreness in the program. Ultimately and mutually income and carbon goods will be encountered. Meanwhile the 2005 /06 their savings in Energy Reduction in their hypermarket domain have conveyed an utter energy lessening of 11.1 % at the same time as mounting their space by over 30 % (McAlexander and Eric, 2008.).


It is worthwhile to evaluate the competitors of the J Sainsbury and their major competitors are the Tesco and ASDA. The profile analysis of the both competitors is given below:


Tesco is the world’s one and only leading stores which operates in fourteen (14) countries, provides work for just about 520,000 people and attending millions of patrons every single week. In the past decade the Tesco has grown up their trade to be the world’s third major grocery vendor. They are recognized as a good strength everywhere they work. Their success stories work for an outsized quantity of a group of people all the way through the country. Their collaboration with these societies prompts them per diem approximately their accountabilities as an owner, as a commercial and as a decent neighbor. Despite the fact price, cost and supplying outstanding service will all the time be significant for the 1000 of individuals who visit the Tesco stores every single day, further concerns are all the time more important too. The clients want to purchase not only the local products but as well as the international products. They would like to eat vigorous food. The clients need the Tesco to consider the neighborhood products, whereas, the requirements of the customers are being fulfilled by the Tesco (Tesco PLC, 2013). 


Ever since 1999, ASDA has been exclusively possessed by the Wal-Mart. It is the major firm and considerably the most sober employer in the Flora and Fauna. ASDA had been acquiring Wal-Mart’s strategy for certain years beforehand it comes about. The takeover has distant accomplishment, significances for British retail as other firms respond to it and discover original techniques to complete. Consequently, even though this was eventually considered as a contour of ASDA, it is incredible to engrave it deprived of frequently mentioning to Wal-Mart. On the other hand, the key focus here is on ASDA as there is previously a propagation of anti Wal-Mart in info on the internet. ASDA has been assessed for distorted publicity, by means of dealers who are recognized to have unlawful employment performs, pay no attention to develop regulations and put an end to greenbelt land, absence of severe environmental policy and deliberate green wash. It is one of the major competitors against the J Sainsbury PLC (ASDA PLC, 2013).

Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

The SWOT Analysis includes the weakness, strengths, opportunities and threats of the company.

Strengths of the J Sainsbury PLC
  • The J Sainsbury PLC has an exceptionally skilled leadership group with Justin King – the Chief Executive obtains countless admiration for his effort in the Sainsbury.
  • A huge number of high caliber officers and staff members are present in this organization. The organization is based on the safe and sound relationship among the employees.
  • The brand name of the J Sainsbury is very sturdy as compared to other organizations.
  • The J Sainsbury’s has had 13 undeviating quarters of progress presenting a genuine turnaround in its business. Even for 2007 it has revealed an upsurge of 7 % in revenue and a gigantic 450 % escalation in profit afterward tax.
  • From corner to corner of the UK, the existence and popularity of the J Sainsbury is very string comparatively.
  • The Sainsbury is working on customer satisfaction as their goals and objectives; therefore the company has a solid customer base.
  • The company gives the impression to be very thriving placed on the green and environmental matters due to its various contemporary enterprises. It has an affirmative consumer brand and it’s liked by means of both green activists and patrons.
  • Universally, the J Sainsbury PLC is among the toughest competitors because they have a good reputation.
  • The J Sainsbury is one of the superstore chains that have perfect celebrity approving products, prominent to augmented sales.
  • The J. Rowly in the year 2000, writes a review for the J Sainsbury company illustrated below:

“By means of Jamie Oliver, it has been modest for Sainsbury’s to perceive uplifts in sales of precise elements that have been highlighted in ad operations. Superficially the supermarkets had to command nine tons- the correspondent of 2 year stream of nutmeg to bump into ultimatum when it gives the idea in one of Oliver’s hundred plus ads.” (Rowly, 2000) 

Weakness of J Seinsbury PLC
  • One of the most considerable weaknesses that can also become a threat in the upcoming time is the growing number of facilities being provided by their several competitors.
  • In broad-spectrum the devotion schemes presented are not executed applicably so the huge odds of the scheme keep on indeterminate.
  • The organization strategy of the J Sainsbury needs to be revised, therefore, it is required that more emphasis on organizational strategy and superior customer amenity should be provided.
  • The Sainsbury’s PLC lacks the emphasis on the elevation of inexpensive yields that’s why the Sainsbury’s should manner thorough market study to acquaint with inexpensive products than other superstores.
  • The overthrow offer by the Qataris Private impartiality firm last year can have certain insinuations as people are settling in the direction of British corporations and the vision of Sainsbury’s being oversaw by an imported firm can lead to clients substituting loyalties.
  • Contrasting Tesco’s expansion plan, the Sainsbury does not exist in flea market other than the UK. This can lead to distress particularly if there is a certain problem in food transaction in the UK or if their desires to be a foundation for further development.
Opportunities of J Sainsbury PLC
  • The unconventional business of the Sainsbury boons a countless opportunity for upcoming growth. Its reserves in the property and an objective of 40 Euro million is on the justification.
  • Higher consumer base especially in the course of Christmas and festivals
  • The J Sainsbury is by now one of the chief competitors and most important retail store in the UK.
  • Other opportunities like the chances in relations of online marketing and financial amenities are plentiful.
Threats of J Sainsbury PLC
  • One of leading threat is the competition of J Sainsbury with other competitors like Tesco and ASDA.
  • Another vital threat is the increasing prices of the J Sainsbury that is the rate of the Sainsbury’s products may be higher than the competitors.
  • The significance of constructing long term client relationships as customers may be focused away from opponents (Rafiq, 2005).

Analysis, Assessment & Recommendations – J Sainsbury PLC

This section of the document explores the emerging brand name and brand impartiality, devotion patterns, own yield and associations among dealers, patrons and sellers. We could encapsulate that Sainsbury’s business emphases on more than a few administration strategies: faithfulness patterns: constructing long term business associations with patrons and dealers; and edifice or improving brand name as a significant determining factor of auctions and achievement of the company. A contemporary news announcement on Sainsbury’s has been specified in an appendix underneath that put forward that Sainsbury’s industry and earnings as well as over-all retail sales have amplified ominously in current years. The news discharge entitlements that Sainsbury’s sales rose by 5.2 % and its market segment surpassed the leader in wholesale Tesco by means of 20 %, presenting plentiful developed sales than estimated and demonstrating the greater company presence (Jiyoung, and Jay, 2012). This demonstrates that Sainsbury’s undertaking of building Sainsbury’s great all over again give the impression to be ensuing progressively and most recent year’s Christmas sales statistics look as if to imitate the achievement of the company (Roper, and Pettit, n.d.). As before now examined the firm presentation pointers propose that Sainsbury’s has been doing very thriving and in the past year, even though its gross earnings were near to the ground, the sales records were considerable advanced than the former current years, displaying a steady signal of upcoming development and possible earnings in the approaching years. Making an allowance for the strategy of shared governance over and done with the allocation of accountability and scattering of profits to take in shareholders and depositors in the judgment creating procedure, the firm appears to be built on its character for limpidity and responsibility. By means of a robust emphasis on financial analysis consuming the thoughts of market examination, the business strategy of the firm is centered on conversation, proposal, considerations and a methodology exposed to propositions and good word for development. Some of the key features of its strategic change and organization’s attitude seem like to be constructing on patron faithfulness by familiarizing trustworthiness patterns to hold patrons. As I have talked over, for great supermarkets and market front-runners in retail, holding old customers gives the impression to be a superior importance than fascinating new ones. Bearing in mind this strategy, constructing long term associations with clients and constructing brand uniqueness and brand name are particular of its principal focus areas.  A prominence is also seen in constructing long term associations with dealers and wholesalers. Spaced out from this the firm’s undertaking and purposes being concentrated on creating Sainsbury’s great all over again would narrate to enlightening customer facility with exceptional kiosks and improving the remunerations and maintenance for clients, refining service supply and the excellence of products and facilities as well (Wrigley, 2000).

The firm’s management methodology is thus concentrated on providing enhanced worth of money and sophisticated quality products when matched with opponents. Bearing in mind the statement that Sainsbury’s look like to have expanded its trade actions to online advertising and drop distribution and financial services, the chief purpose of the company give the impression to be made widespread and wide-ranging amenities in all characteristics of life (Assesment, 2013).


After the survey and analysis of the J Sainsbury PLC, it is concluded that on having the competitive advantage, they have some weaknesses and threats too. The company should find a strong way to fight their opponents as their opponents are very strong. They can be successful by keeping their rates low as compared to the opponents. The J Sainsbury has already worked on some recommendation as given above but besides this I will recommend that for getting success in future the company should analyze its sales report monthly and annually. They should focus on the product quality much more than the quality of the other retailed stores. They should focus the customer feedback on every purchasing of the product about the services of J Sainsbury PLC. The organizational strategy is very weak so the J Sainsbury should focus the strategy. After working on all these recommendations, the J Sainsbury will be among the toppers.

Reference Page:
  • ASDA PLC, 2013. ASDA – Saving your Money Every Day. [online] Available at: <http://www.asda.com> [Accessed 10 Dec 2013]
  • Augustin, J. 2011. In Management Accounting at J Sainsbury Plc.Seminar Paper, GRIN Verlag, Stependiatten-Wissen
  • Francis, T. 2011. Business and Science. International Journal of the Economics of Business. 1357-1516, 1466-1829
  • j–Sainsbury, 2013. Services and Responsibilities. [online] Available at < http://www.j-sainsbury.co.uk/responsibility/20×20/> [Accessed 8 Dec 2013]
  • Jiyoung, H., and Jay, K. 2012. “The role of emotional aspects in younger consumer-brand relationships”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 2 pp. 98 – 108
  • McAlexander, A, and Eric, H. 2008. J. Sainsbury Plc and the Home Depot: Retailers’ Impact. [online] Available at < http://sfp.cas.psu.edu/homedepot.htm> Accessed [10 Dec 2013]
  • Rafiq, M. and Fulford, H. 2005. “Loyalty transfer from offline to online stores in
  • The UK grocery industry” International Journal of Retail & Distribution
  • Management
  • Rowley, J. 2000. “Loyalty kiosks: making loyalty cards work” British Food Journal,390-398(9)-24
  • Roper, L. and Pettit, J. n.d. An Introduction to the Development and the Learning Organization. Development and the Learning Organization
  • Rowley, J. and Slack, F. 2003. “Kiosks in retailing: the quiet revolution” International Journal
  • Of Retail & Distribution Management, pp. 329 – 339(11)
  • Tesco PLC, 2013. About Tesco. [online] Available at: <http://www.tescoplc.com/> [Accessed 10 Dec 2013]
  • Wrigley, N. 2000. “Strategic market behavior in the internationalization of food retailing –
  • Interpreting the third wave of Sainsbury’s US diversification” European Journal of
  • Marketing, pp. 891-919(29)
  • Wrigley, N. 2003. “British food retail capital in the USA – Part 1: Sainsbury and the Shaw’s
  • Experience” British Food Journal, pp. 412 – 426(15)
  • Yong, J. K., James, Z., Kevin, C., and Donna, P. 2011,”Assessment of event quality in major spectator sports”, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 21 Iss: 3 pp. 304 – 322[/sociallocker]

Paris – European Tourism Industry Case Study Analysis

Paris - European Tourism Industry Case Study Analysis

European Tourism Industry: A Paris Case Study


First of all, I would like to show appreciation for the participation and concern by my teachers and supervisors throughout the completion of this dissertation in a systematic way. The direction of my teachers supported me a lot and it encourages me to accomplish research aims. My teachers direct me regarding researching techniques, which supported me a lot in carrying out this research. Thus, I would like to thanks and appreciate my teachers for direction. I would also like to appreciate the research staff for their help and contribution. They encourage me by ascertaining that the research will be effective. Their guidance supported me in handling with day-to-day issues and problems.

I would also like to express my gratitude for those participants who supported me in collecting information. With the support of their concern and trust, information was gathered originally. Without their contribution, it was not possible to gather the information. Finally, I want to express my heartfelt gratitude for my family and friends who encouraged me and helped me in carrying out this research. They established my confidence through which I was capable to complete this study. Their trust and belief helped me immensely in acquiring my aim and doing this study successfully.


The tourism market is one of the biggest and rapid growing industries all around the world.  As per the World Tourism Organizations predictions, the industry will remain to flourishing and use more people in the 21st century. Along with the development of the tourism and hospitality market internationally, expectations of consumers and demands for higher quality are augmenting while consumer preferences are varying also (Montanari and Williams, 1995). Competition among the organizations, both internationally and nationally, is getting intense on one another. In this industrial context of increased consumer expectations, different market areas that demand special products and services, and tough competition, hospitality and tourism firms are looking for ways to progress in service quality, competition, customer satisfaction and performance, this paper takes the perception that humans and organizational behaviors are closely related with the success and failure of the tourism industry and help in the achievement of the desired goals through exceptional performance (Buzard, 1993). The purpose of this dissertation is to focus the core concepts related with the successful tourism and through a Paris case study, recommendations and suggestions for one of the major metropolitan of Europe; London has created an immense opportunity to explore the subject in detail.

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgements 
  • Abstract 
  • Chapter One: Introduction.
  • Chapter Two: Literature Review
  • Chapter Three: Humans and Organizations Behaviors in Tourism Industry
  • Organizational Behaviour
  • Criteria to Measure Competitiveness in the Tourism Industry.
  • Tourism in Paris
  • Competitive Advantages 
  • Suggestions for Paris
  • Annual Investments
  • Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Findings
  • References 

Chapter One: Introduction

Dissertation Overview

Tourism has emerged one of the most crucial aspect and the most profit generating performance in numerous small island emerging states. It has transformed into the source of employment generation and revenue for small island’s people (Zuelow, 2011). A transformation in the tourism requirement for an island may have a big impact on the GDP (Gross Domestic Product), which refers to the total worth of services and goods generated in a country in a specific period of time, normally a year, the Balance of payments and the budget (Ashworth and Kavaratzis, 2010). Tourism has transformed into a highly developing industry in the current state of business, where destinations majorly depend on their natural and few manmade assets to make their tourism market. It is sometimes a core component for economic development and progress. The economic influence of tourism has shifted the tourism industry to be regarded as one of the most highly important and incorporated parts of every state economy. While the economic influence and the participation of the tourism industry to a nation are hugely accepted, it is also a business which generates millions of jobs and a source of earnings from foreign exchange (Baranowski, 2007).

Paris - European Tourism Industry Case Study Analysis

Tourism is always related with human nature. The tourism market is based on people-operated by people and dedicated for people. Effectiveness in the industry relies on the performances of those who are both directly and indirectly related with the industry. These can be domestic inhabitants of the host country, those who perform in the industry and offer services to people, developers, marketers, investors, and supervisors (Richards, 2001). The industry depends on the variety of human characteristics, abilities and skills. Realizing human beings and the impact their behaviours has on tourism functions is important if the industry is to develop in the prospect. Human behaviour is highly complex and diverse. It is intricate to evaluate and understand why people react the way they do. Attitudes of people and their perceptions about the world are defined by the context, needs and lifestyles. According to Pack, (2006) Mostly people evaluate others without a profound understanding of the impacts their backgrounds has on their conducts. In tourism, there is a strong requirement to realize why people travel, what they wish to enjoy, and how they desire to spend their precious money.

Moreover, understanding the core areas of a successful tourism and how a destination can become an ideal place for tourists to visit is highly imperative, just like Paris tourism has offered innumerable attractions for its tourists and has gained exceptional success throughout the world (Becker, 2013). Besides, it is also significant to realize the current trends of the tourism market and how can a famous destination can also confronts with lags and it should be able to comprehend with the changing demands of the tourists to cope up the gap. 

Background of the Research

Demographical research findings of the spatial framework of tourism have significantly overlooked procedures and phenomenon at very domestic scales (Boissevain, 1996). The majority of the research so far carried out has concerned evaluation of sharing and flows at the global, domestic and regional levels. Indeed there is a plethora of domestic case studies however these mostly concentrate on designs of demand, procedures of the development and diverse impacts rather than on the manner in which tourism is organized in space. The spatial researches carried out at the domestic scale have tended to evaluate the morphologies of particular resorts, particularly coastal resorts, and the sharing of provisions in metropolitan areas, especially hotels (European Commission and Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2007). A few have tried to evaluate in urban tourist interests. Researches of tourism in urban regions, the subject of this paper, identify and show that diverse forms of regions exist within a tourist destination and preferences in which various services and characteristics utilized and visited by tourists are situated, mostly in a clustered or linear manner (Carrigan, 2012).

There is hardly any attempt to go below this level and to observe at the framework and operation of separate elements of any of these regions (European Tourism and Leisure Education: Trends and Prospects and Richards, 1995). Yet these particular features comprise the basic developing blocks on which urban tourism is established and realizing what happens at this level (micro-scale or site specific) is indeed important for a complete understanding of tourism in the region as a whole. In spite being not hugely cited in the following literature on tourism, many researchers have their concepts have barely been defined on nor evaluated empirically (Commission, 2009). Certainly researchers himself does not express his concepts with profound treatment of particular examples. What is required now is both a more clear idealization of micro-scale tourism and experimental research utilizing more creative field work as compared than that generally found in citywide researches. It is in this background that this paper seeks to make a contribution to the characteristics of tourism related behaviours and through an organized evaluation of the framework and functioning of selected tourism regions in Paris (Cooper and Fletcher et al., 2008).

As a leading global destination, attracting almost 20 million visitors per year, Paris offers scholars with numerous stimulating research chances, the scale and scope of which cannot be instantly captured in a research paper (European Commission, 2003). Selected instances of such attractions in Paris grand churches and the sewers are evaluated systematically in the view of the literature on tourist areas and tourist attractions to demonstrate problems which emerge in urban tourism. Page, (2011) identified that specific attention is emphasized on issues of place recognition and spatial management as the expression of idealized markers and the setting aside of regions for particular functions. Mix of these measures are utilized, both as a response to visitor demand and to nurture tourist patronage as well as utilization. The research concludes that tourists make recognizable and different demands on regions and merit greater attraction as users of area (Costa and Panyik et al., 2013).

Chapter Two: Literature Review

Tourism was among the first pillar of the world economy after agriculture and manufacturing. It has constituted substantially to economic development and has been a major element in the complete growth of a country. It is important that organizations use knowledge philosophy approach to retain people and consumer satisfaction. Consumer satisfaction and consumer loyalty are the most crucial aspects to the effectiveness of tourism industry (Davis and Marvin, 2004). Tourism workers have direct link with consumers. It is particularly significant for employees to have the knowledge regarding the customer choices and how to offer the best services. Scholars highlight that knowledge can hugely influence training and success and that organizations should adjust training with the objectives and strategies of the company. The aim of training is to share knowledge with workers, who can utilize it to enhance performance. Knowledge can assist human resource managers recognize training requirements in order to offer the right training to the right individual. Training in tourism companies is crucial, as most of the employees have straight contact with consumers and companies want to ascertain that employees offer service that will appeal new consumers and retain loyal customers (Davis and Marvin, 2004).

However, it is important for tourism organizations to decide the adequate training ways to meet the goals. Due to the budget, availability and time of training employees, sometimes training is not enough to solve the issues. Researchers acknowledge that knowledge facilitates people to be creative about the organization’s services and products. In order to remain competitive, tourism organizations require generating new service or products (Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, 2013). Through acquiring, transferring and sharing the needed knowledge, it directs employees to be innovative eventually directing companies to have competitive advantage. Even though the studies on knowledge philosophy in the tourism sector have been nominal, the organizations in the industry are hugely dependent on the knowledge management viewpoint to enhance performances and acquire competitive advantage. Because of the increased utilization of information technology and mechanisms, tourism services have transformed knowledge-oriented. Tourism sector is one of the biggest consumers of information technology (Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, 2013). As a consequence, it is important for tourism firms to motivate and learn from knowledge philosophy research in order to differentiate a company from its competitors.

Chapter Three: Humans and Organizations Behaviors in Tourism Industry

The idea of human behavior in the tourism industry can be evaluated in relation to subjects related with the consumer behavior. Consumer behavior is the attitude that consumers express in choosing, buying, utilizing, and assessing services, products, experiences and concepts that they predict will satisfy their requirements and needs. Consumer behavior is the conduct that consumers express in the process of decision making when confronting with numerous alternatives or options (Burkardt, 2013). The research of tourist behavior relates the ways in which they choose, buy, use, and assess travel services, products and experiences. Tourist behavior researchers try to understand and elaborate how they carry out decisions to spend accessible resources, like money, and energy, on travel associated services and products. The study of tourist behavior is the study of a person’s mind, including cognition (knowing, thinking, realizing, perceiving, processing, storing, and retrieving data from the background); influence (emotions, feelings, predispositions, behaviors); and conation (desires to behave and act in a particular manner, reasons for actions, interest and volition), overt attitude body language, spirit, feedback (what a person gets from the environment), and environment which impacts the tourist behavior(Baxter, 2011).

The topic of tourist behavior is multi-disciplinary by nature; it is dependent on ideas and hypotheses regarding human that have been grown by social scientists in various fields, like sociology, psychology, social psychology, economics, anthropology, marketing, geography, management, recreation and leisure, transportation, agriculture, education, and law. The idea towards tourist behavior will be diverse as per the varied perspectives of multiple disciplines as mentioned above. Regardless of the selection of the perspective, the aim of understanding the concept of tourist behavior is to better react to the requirements of hugely diverse humans and to better handle the emerging numbers of people that travel destinations and appeal, so as to develop mutually flourishing relationships (Dusoulier, 2008).

Organizational Behaviour

All firms are by definition firms of people; however tourism firms need intensified concentration on participant’s attitude, since participants’ conduct has a major importance for the delivery of consumer satisfaction and consumer viewpoints regarding the quality of services. The organizational procedures whereby leaders manage frontline employees in specific and all staff in common are a major concern. Both these attracted in the research of tourism service firms as big employers and those learning these firms in planning for work in the segment require to grow an important understanding of the association between tourism service firms and the diverse people who make up the association (Graf and Christine, 1999).

Tourism firms are mostly large companies composed of numerous departments or divisions, with every division having its individual set of objectives, methods, and norms of working. However, even though every division works as a separate unit, they are not independent. The divisions are a cohesive collection of units that are all working for similar business objectives. Corporate strategy highlights the strategic of an organization’s strategic business units or SBUs.

Criteria to Measure Competitiveness in the Tourism Industry

Tourism is identified as one of the major areas of development internationally and a big source of revenue, employment and income generation. Tourism also plays an important role in encouraging the perception and global image of a country externally as well as impacting complementary local policies. This array of impact and significance creates confrontations in estimating competitiveness in tourism. Realizing country competitiveness in tourism is a big focus for policy makers and a big challenge for experts in offering evidence to inform decision making (Fodor’s, 2013). Numerous signals have been emerged by various firms over the years to highlight specific factors of competitiveness however there has remained a lack of a complete estimation framework for competitiveness in tourism for the utilization of states. The existing work by partner and member states seeks to highlight this disparity and make constructive participation to the pragmatic estimation of competitiveness. The impacts on competitiveness can alter quickly and this activity creates more challenges and a requirement for continuous research and growth on indicators (Fodor’s, 2013).  

The estimation framework includes three forms of indicator that can be applicable to measure competitiveness in the industry of tourism-basic, supplementary and for prospect development (Gorsuch, 2011). These core criterions are as follows:

  • TDGDP (Tourism Direct Gross Domestic Product). It is a contrast of TDGDP shift over years is a major statistic of tourism competitiveness and will support utilization of the TSA. The concentration is on the direct influence, local and internal tourism utilization. The confrontation for the prospect is about estimating the induced and indirect influences. A contrast of TDGDP shift over years is may be the single most recordable statistic of tourism competitiveness (Heeley, 2011).
  • Revenues of inbound tourism per tourist by source industry. It is an estimation of the economic performance of visitors recognizing the ratio growth or reduction gradually through years within inbound tourism income per tourist by source industry. The concentration is on inbound tourism utilization. The challenge is the availability and persistent protocols.
  • Overnights in all forms of accommodation. An estimation of tourism flows in accommodation, collecting the ratio development or reduction gradually in overnights in all forms of accommodation or, if not accessible, in hotels and alike establishments. The concentration is on inbound and internal economy of tourism. The confrontation is estimating unregistered and personal accommodation (Marcussen, 1999).
  • Tourism service exports. An estimation of exports of the services related with tourism and associated performance contrasted with other segments, having growth or reduction per year in importance and in ratio. The concentration is on inbound tourism utilization. The confrontation is to gather detailed information for sub-divisions. The estimation will show alteration in performance showing competition with regards to value, brand awareness and global attraction.
  • Labor performance in tourism services. An estimation of the evolution and level of performance of those worked in tourism and the productive capacity of the tourism economy depicted in a table of performance measures and development rates by any country. Labor productivity is a major direction of competitiveness. The complexity associates to complexities of estimation, specifically to address performance issues, and the particularity of the tourism division comprising the small scale of businesses.
  • PPPs (Purchasing Power Parity) and tourism costs. An estimation of tourism price standard disparities across nations depicted as indices with a basis (artificial or real) selected by country or a group of country. Shifting costs belong to the most crucial competitiveness aspects. The challenge is to nurture comprehensive tourism division particular item groups and costs for separate items (Mau and Verwiebe, 2010).
  • Visa entry requirements of country. An estimation of entry visa requirements comprising methods of issuance of visa along with the number of visas issued in a year as well as share of inbound tourism arrivals. Mobility of traveler is an important component and visa problems are part of the competitiveness of the context. The challenge is to locate a suitable framework for strategy evaluation provided that visa procedures vary substantially across nations.
  • Biodiversity and natural resources. A measure of stocks of a country about its natural resources, in terms of the quantity of identified sites of natural heritages and preserved regions. This should be evaluated along with the data on biodiversity and ecological systems, population and geographical location density. Natural assets are core drivers of interest and provide countries a competitive advantage. The confrontation is to recognize a consolidated estimation (Mau and Verwiebe, 2010).
  • Creative and cultural resources. A composite estimation of the number of identified cultural and innovative attractions in various types. Creative and cultural assets are major drivers of appeal. Developing a strategy that base on creative and cultural assets can offer competitive advantages. The confrontation is to recognize a consolidated estimation.
  • Customer satisfaction. An evaluation of demand end attractiveness worth, utilizing a comparable estimation of customer satisfaction ranking and desire for repeat visits. Customer satisfaction is a crucial qualitative sign from the demand end. The confrontation is to gather information which are relied on strong statistical methods and permit comparison over time (Medlik and Lockwood, 2002).
  • National Tourism Plan of Action. A competitiveness criterion that identifies the presence and quality of execution, evaluation and effectiveness of a national tourism action plan to enhance the competitiveness of tourism within a country. The confrontation is to perceive how best grab the value of the plan of action to enhance the competitiveness of a location (Medlik and Lockwood, 2002).

As Midttun, (2001) suggested that for every indicator, a data sheet expresses the policy background, the confrontations associated to execution, the estimation and the interpretation, the information sources and ways, and the next actions. The ultimate list of criterions has been held short and concentrated in order to be realistic, manageable and appropriate to instant requirements of countries. The initial four criterions aim to grab the real performance participation and economic market outcomes delivered through tourism. This can be evaluated in terms of appropriate performance with other segments and with other nations relying on the dimension of competitiveness for strategy builders. The next seven criterions highlighted above, measure feedbacks and potential participation to tourism competitiveness (Moranda, 2013).

Tourism in Paris

Few metropolitan cities all around the globe set the visualization ablaze in the way that Paris does. Only expression of the French capital invokes up images of magnificent architecture, stylish Parisians having coffee on the driving boulevard, charming little boutiques, and of course few of the most popular landmarks and sites all through the world. The tourist, visiting Paris for the first time, becomes enchanted when they visit the French capital. It is perhaps one of the most famous tourist spots on the earth, so there is not actually an off peak season, although, as many tourists would predict, the busiest seasons for tourism are from May till September along with peaks coming in June and July. Paris’s temperature tends to drift around to slightly hot to cold during the summer; however Paris has recently got few heat waves (Hamburger and Hamburger, 2001). With so many attractions to explore in this beautiful city, tourists will need at least a week to completely immerse themselves in the Parisian feel, however if time is limited and the visitor have few days to discover the city, some of the notable attractions should not be missed.

Paris is the most favorable of the attractiveness man can make. Geographically, the city has nothing rousing. It is a plain piece of land in the company of a river through the city. The most impressive about the city, are the wonder creations by humans which made the city worth exploring (Long and Williams, 2013). Whether it is street planning, architecture, fashion, art, food, entertainment or drink, Paris has best of everything for its visitors. London is the traditional amalgamation of the English speaking region; Paris is likely to be the French speaking corresponding. Cultures and traditions from all around the world are well expressed in Paris, all natives speaking perfect French. Through the mix of various cultures, diverse art types have been imported and integrated to Paris’s born impressive set of values. It is a city with a catchy environment. There would be hardly anyone who visit the city and not get inspired to drink, eat and appreciate the art. Paris has also been highly famous for romance and makes it a perfect place for couples on honeymoon(Staff, 2004).

Competitive Advantages

For numerous years, the city of Paris has been the most significant real estate investment in the entire continental Europe. It has an overall fund volume of € 8-10 Billion per year. This is because in the major area to the different economic foundation of the region which offers healthy and sustainable professional markets. Alignment between the big business segments including large market, financial services and public sector along with other services offers keeps increasing levels at about 2 million sq. meters per year. With a complete office stock in the area reaching 50 million sq. meters, the city region is also the biggest office industry in Europe (Swire Winkler and Lesieur, 2006). However, it is not all about commercialization and offices. The city of Paris is all significantly the world’s most famous tourist spot which supports the city’s highest international status in the field of luxury hotel and retail sectors. Last but nevertheless the least, the city’s residential property industry has expressed an increased degree of flexibility to the universal financial crisis as clients continue to select Paris as a secure place for their personal households or purchase to generate investments.

Paris provides some of the highly famous monuments and museums in the world comprising the Louvre Museum with nearly 9 million tourists per year and the Eiffel Tower with nearly 7 million tourists (Taber, 2005). Within the past few years, the Euro Disney also has been appealing more than 15 million tourists per year. In spite European nationals estimating for 60% of hotel residency captured by outsiders, there has been a burly rise in South American, Middle Eastern and Asian tourists. Paris is famous for its luxury stays in hotels; the majority of them are three stars which represents around 60 percent of all overnight hotel stays in the past two years.  Four and Five stars hotels are among the highly dynamic in the industry and represented a 21 percent increase in overnight stays in contrast with past records (Thomazeau and Ageorges et al., 2005).

Paris has been regarded as the world’s 3rd tourism destination preferable for business fairs with a sum of 995 trade events in 2011 which catered around 800,000 participants. This robust activity directs to an increased ratio of business visits in the city of Paris and commercial travel showed around 44 percent of overall hotel night stays in the city during the year 2011  (Baxter, 2011). Moreover, the hotel supply for the region of Paris includes more than 110,000 rooms including which 79,000 are present within central Paris. Nearly a third of all hotel rooms are in the four and five star segments, with 35 percent comes under the three star rating. In terms of cost level in Europe, the city places itself on 5th rank right after Geneva, London, Moscow, and Zurich. However, the change is dynamic with a rise of +7.4 percent in 2011. In 2010, the predicted total revenue for Paris hotels approached 4.4 billion Pounds.  Tourism has been a tremendous influence on the city of Paris and its economy. In the year 2010, 373,000 employments were allocated to the tourism market. Also, tourism offered 13 percent of entire jobs for the central Paris (Burkardt, 2013).

The Louvre is a certain option, however absolutely a magnificent landmark to observe. Even reaching there is as costly as it is located in one of the most stunning areas of the city with regards to architecture (Dusoulier, 2008). The Louvre museum has been one of the most significant in the entire world and is a place to thousands of modern and classic artistic masterpieces, needless to mention the legendary Mona Lisa. Observing the city from the peak of the Eiffel tower offers a lifetime experience which is totally breathtaking for the tourists. The monument is 300 meters tall tower which makes an incredibly and beholding site of engineering and actually has to be seen up close in order to appreciate it as a whole (Dusoulier, 2008).

Notre Dame Church was established during the year 1200 and has been regarded as one of the limited free tourist spots in the Paris region. It is quite amazing inside and from external as well and combines to make a worth visit, even someone has no interest in the architecture of medieval times. A sail on the Seine River is an astonishing method to explore the city of romance and from the boat; the tourist should be able to observe numerous famous locations, including the museum of Louvre, Jardin des Plantes and Norte Dame (Graf and Christine, 1999).

Located at the bottom of the famous Champs Elysees, magnificent Arc de Triomphe is one of the most famous Parisian monuments that are quite worth visiting. The monument is carved with frescos of battle sights from the Napoleonic times and is a stunning landmark to this period in France’s interesting history. In addition to some of the gigantic visiting place, the fabulous transport infrastructure of Paris makes for tourists quite convenient to explore the city, even they lost their ways during sightseeing. There are plenty of helpful directions and with a help of little French, the tourists can easily get their ways from the Parisian who are warm hearted and eager to help (Graf and Christine, 1999). The city of romance has its individual essence whether anyone have been there once, or a hundred times or even only observed the place in movies. In all the ways, the city of Paris has something unique which many other cities do not. The tourists have a lot more to explore in the city then they would have imagined before visiting the place.

The inhabitants of Paris are proud to be living in such a place where they might not express it out loud; they have the idea that they are the part of one of the highly enchanting cities of the world. Some of the most evident competitive advantages the city has to offer its tourists have been described here. These points are enough to convince some of the skeptics who think Paris is just another tourist spot. There is no uncertainty that Paris is extremely special and exclusive. It is a place that has, for epochs, held confined the imaginations of tourists around the globe (Hamburger and Hamburger, 2001). Numerous of the most celebrated and prolific philosophers and writers of all era worked in the city and it is one of the most preferable honeymoon spots on the planet. Paris surely has that specific touch which makes the place entirely memorable.

During the entire day in Paris, the city will always be the best place to stroll around. Walking alongside the lovely waters of the River Seine and taking a trek through the classic alleyways of famous Montmarte, will offer an exclusive and memorable experience for the visitors. Paris is loaded with beauty and style, from its chic and trendy inhabitants to its cute and cozy shop faces, idyllic roads and astonishing museums. The city of Paris has some of the ultimate architecture all across Europe which makes it unique and different from other European cities. In addition the must visit sites, Paris is also extremely famous for its haute cuisine (French actually invented the haute gastronomy) (Long and Williams, 2013). The majority of the leading chefs visit Paris to mentor in numerous high class restaurants of the city which offers a chance for visitors to taste the best variety of gourmet available anywhere else in the entire Europe (Staff, 2004).

Paris has got its unique status among tourist destinations all around the world, specifically because of its iconic monuments and landmarks. From the breathtaking spire of the Eiffel Tower to the outstanding pyramid standing at the Louvre, the city of Paris has some amazingly famous grandeur. European royals have mostly enjoyed the brilliance of the Parisians sites, and so can everyone else who visits the place. From the charming gardens of the Jardin du Luxembourg to the dissolute greenery of the regal tuileries, the gardens and parks in the city are absolutely special (Swire Winkler and Leisure, 2006).

Suggestions for Paris

Tourism is lately very particular sector, which is why particular knowledge about the industry is also needed. For the employees, although, there are still common and fundamental skill requires for every individual (Taber, 2005). For instance, lack of insight about foreign languages has been lately identified by national organizations of tourism belonged to some European nations as an enduring issue and even as a competitive drawback. Entrepreneurship, an idea still distantly elaborated, is taken further dynamically in the practical field by education providers who are operating on this concept and considering of executing this even at the mandatory school level. There are also particular skill requirements elaborated by labor segment. At management standard, these are rather related to the transversal potentials; therefore tourism managers mostly have an academic background in marketing, accountancy, economics or law. However, managers are required to have the following potentials and efficiencies: strategic and business planning, computer skills, management talents, strategic alliances, management through values and visions, these offers management, product development, accounting, creativity, human resource management, project management, destination management, management core skills to handle with globalization impacts, marketing and sales potentials and change management skills (Taber, 2005).

The managers of these locations have become greatly aware of their diverse recognitions and have established strategies to handle emerging issues which have been confronting. Of the four core tourist strategies elaborated by a number of researchers, those engaging the improvement of tourist knowledge and spatial estimates appear the most general (Thomazeau and Ageorges et al., 2005). In every case diversifying degrees of data are offered: to encourage and inform right conduct in the cathedrals, to provide shopping, and to enlarge consideration of the sewers. Numerous strategies put in place to handle the tourists have a precise spatial direction. In the case of the cathedrals, where the posture is effectively a responsive one, attempts may be taken to lead the flow of tourists and to exclude them from the particular spots within, either ethically through signage or bodily, for instance roping off particular areas or implementing wooden hindrances. Such initiatives may become more preventive during services; it is one of the few examples with these cases of time management.

On the other side, the grands magasins have grown this new requirement by subtly creating exclusive retail areas which provides shopping by foreign visitors and do so in such a manner that they do not deviate from the exposure of their more conventional customers. In the example of the sewers, Paris official authorities should open up a very small area of a highly elaborated network to the citizens (Baxter, 2011). Originally a reaction to demand from the inquisitive few, the area has lately been established primarily with regards to environmental education relatively than for the purpose of tourism, however through the innovation of the mock sewer even this area has been influenced to react to tourist expectations. Management of sites of multiple usages frequented by visitors is precisely significant for tourism since these are the sole attractions, the causes why visitors have traveled mostly quite long distances to explore the cityBurkardt, 2013).

Thus, greater consideration is needed to these micro scale areas of the tourism in Paris for it is at this strata that numerous of the tourists experiences are influenced and their levels of happiness determined. Simultaneously, their communication with the other groups of users must also be taken into consideration as these similar places may also comprise important areas of the daily spaces of the residents of the city (Burkardt, 2013). The tourist management reactions which are raising, whether proactive or reactive, are hugely impacting the ways in which other might make utilization of various urban areas and therefore are becoming increasingly more crucial in understanding how areas of contemporary cities work. While visitors in numerous cities might not still make such numerous networks as those elaborated in more conventional terms like race, class, or gender, these instances from Paris do express that they do create recognizable and different demands on sites and that they merit higher evaluation as users of area.

The concentration here has been on site recognition through the analyzing of ciphers and the management of touristic destinations.  Substantial prospect exists to enlarge the range or instances examined in the city and in other cities as well to offer higher weight to the visitors’ perspective and personal attitude in these backgrounds, whether visitor, local follower, or resident buyer. These micro scale researches also require to be held in perspective by continuing other study which evaluates the associations between particular sites and how these match into their region, tourism areas, and the metropolis as whole (Dusoulier, 2008).

Annual Investments

From the past two decades, many cities of Europe has been through an unpredicted phase of development in many areas related with the tourism industry, development oriented, in the first place, and consequently emerged into sustainable tourism. Particularly, by macro scale public sector funding in both marketing and product development (evidently, massive attractions, festivals and venues). As a result, the private sector funded greatly and the field of tourism developed at a faster pace right through to the current phase. The result has been a massive progression to many cities’ economy, in relation to employment and revenue as well as a substantial improvement to the cities’ facilities and services to the interest of citizens, tourists and investors alike (Etc-corporate.org, 2013).

This strategy should be for the maintenance of the momentum of development for the European cities to the next twenty years and beyond. The capacity for the strategic development is present, however it is surely not curtained and the cities cannot rely on their glory. Competition in the global marketplace is getting intense and both developed and new tourist destinations are increasingly investing to gain attention and boost market share, numerous of them aiming tourist markets to remain competent into the European tourism industry. At a time of uncertainty and unprecedented outcomes in the international economy, it would be beneficial to concentrate defensively merely on the short term goals, when really the requirement is all the higher to carry on investments, to ascertain that the city utilizes the opportunities offered by its current and prospect resources in the short term and establishes the foundation for strategic growth.

Therefore, it is imperative for European cities to focus on some major areas in order to remain competitive in the tourism market of Europe. They should ensure to persistently invest into the current products and services. Most significantly, to sustain or raise investment in those outstanding resources of cities that are basic to their exclusive competitive status as a player of international stature, specifically the festivals, historical heritages, literature, their major tourist attractions, and their conference products. Creativity with new products development and innovative types of marketing in line with shifting market demands is also crucial. In terms of cities’ economies, the requirement for development is very practical. The current status of European tourism market signifies the importance and demand to create almost 50,000 new employment opportunities or confront a major issue with unemployment. Development in tourism offers one of the most practical methods of offering new employment and it can offer an excessively constructive contribution for the European growth target of 1.8 percent p.a. till 2018 (Etc-corporate.org, 2013). This is because of the both capacity for progress and the potential to understand that progress with more restricted investment than will be needed in other sectors of growth, like life sciences.

This potential of employment is persistent with market expectations. The British Association Scotland has predicted that jobs in the many major cities’ hospitality category, which has a huge overlap with the European tourism market, will rise. This increment will boost the overall economy and of cities and eventually would lead to improved outlook on tourism industry. Therefore, investing in future employment will be able to facilitate the cities with innumerable ways to augment their tourism share within the European market (Library.illinois.edu, 2013). The health of the cities’ tourism is crucial to the economy not merely for the city alone, but of the entire Europe as a whole. Europe has got some iconic places that are a key portion of Europe’s offering and the major motivator of tourists to Europe for numerous foreign visitors specifically. In this manner, tourism in Europe creates a major contribution towards the European states economic strategies, the cities’ policies, and the national tourism policy. It follows that if Europe fails to sustain its competitiveness and excel itself efficiently, Europe as a whole will suffer. Therefore, it is certainly in the national as well as international interest to sustain or augment its investment to ascertain Europe’s prospect success.

While the major example for public sector investment in European tourism associates to jobs and quality of life for the citizen of Europe, there is also a quite significant direct return towards the public wealth, with regards to the VAT paid by tourists, trade rations paid by the tourism market and taxation paid by workers in the tourism industry; reciprocally, these combines up to hundreds of millions of Pounds in a year (Notarstefano, 2007). The investment needed to execute this policy will be important. The cities’ main tourism stakeholders have indentified the capacity for investing some components of the strategy via re-prioritization of current alignment and spending of prospect assets, identifying the robust synergies between the residents and the investment preferences for tourism, traders and investors. Although, there will be a requirement to discover probable new ways of funding to help the continuous growth of the market (Notarstefano, 2007).

While carrying out public sector management and initiative is important, as well as for the investment by the private sector, by firms already involved in tourism and through other players who can introduce innovative methods and new market areas to the cities. On the other hand, the private sector has been rapid to understand the opportunities that European cities have offered over the previous two decades. There is every sign that organizations small and large, European and global, will be concerned by the prospect opportunities that will emerge from this investment strategy. The duration of few investment policies might be impacts by existing economic ambiguity, however European cities’ past record of late years shows that further development is expected, even in critical times, also that the long to medium term prospect for private sector investment is highly optimistic (Commission, 2009).

Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Findings

When conversing about the skills and trends requirements in tourism, it is interesting all the time to begin with few facts and statistics on the existing situation of European tourism industry. The universal overview for this energetic sector is, in association with other conventional European economic areas, optimistic and quite positive for the approaching years  (Pickard, 2001). Tourism is normally and internationally recognized as being one of the quite few sectors of economy that has more than substantial development potentials and is segmented as a catalyst for prosperity and peace. In spite the raising competition in overall global tourism, Europe is currently the leading tourism destinations. The continent has the greatest density and variety of tourist spots. If Europe wishes to sustain this status, the universal vibes and the skill requirements in this area are highly crucial. The potential for tourist housing in Europe shows differences between campsites and hotels. Generally discussing, the hotel segment leads in most spots, excluding some areas in the south and west of France, the north-east of Spain, the coastal regions of Belgium, the UK and the Netherlands. In 2000, there were approximately 200000 accommodations in hotels within the fifteen member states of the EU (European Union) (Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, 2013).

Tourism in Europe contributes for over than EUR 800 billion expenses per year by European Union inhabitants (Etc-corporate.org, 2013). It comprises nearly 30 percent of the European Union’s external business in services and makes potential for more than three million extra jobs. Moreover, tourism is one of the highly crucial sectors of the overall European economy; Gross Domestic Product (GDP) generated tourism expresses already 5 percent in the major industry with another 7 percent in the associated economy (Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, 2013). There are around two million businesses within Europe and the tourism industry is responsible for seven million employment opportunities in the central business (or 5 percent of the overall human resource) and around 20 million employments in total with the associated economy, or an extra 8 percent employees. This refers that the tourism sector of Europe is also able of making 100,000 new jobs in a year. An important part of consumer expense (12 percent) is allocated for tourism (Library.illinois.edu, 2013). However, tourism is currently an internal phenomenon of Europe since 87 percent of the visitors who take a trip to Europe come from EU nations. Even though, the majority of the travel is still assumed for leisure business, 20 percent for trading.

Specific trends within the European tourism market have been recognized, recommending that visitors arrivals will double in the coming twenty five years and that this rise will continue to emerge in Europe. This will refer that by the year 2020, expectations are that over 720 million cross-boundaries visitors in a year will visit Europe’s destinations (Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, 2013). At the same time, it is also expected that there will be a great increment in elderly visitors, the natural and cultural heritage of European tourism will be the most rapid emerging sector and some of the driving forces of European Union like liberalization, the euro and the internal industry will only attain more significance for more development of tourism. The efficiency of the European tourism market is closely related with its sustainability, since the quality of visitor attractions is hugely impacted by their cultural and natural context and their incorporation into the domestic community (Commission, 2009).

Strategic sustainability needs a harmony between environment and sustainability in socio-cultural and economic terms. The demand to settle economic development and sustainable growth also accounts for an ethical perspective (Priestley and Edwards et al., 1996). Significant challenges for sustainable development of tourism comprises of the following point:

  • Reservation of cultural and natural resources of a country
  • Restricting negative influences at tourist spots, including utilization of natural assets and waste production
  • Encouraging the well-being of the domestic people
  • Decreasing the uncertainty of demand
  • Restricting the influence of environment over tourism linked infrastructure
  • Creating tourism accessible to everyone
  • Enhancing the excellence of tourism services as well as employment opportunities

A sustainable and positive approach towards tourism will direct to the growth, innovation, superiority of services and products related with the tourism and will ensure European tourist destinations to become even more attractive for the visitors from all around the globe.

Chapter Five: Conclusions & Recommendations

Human attitude develops as a consequence of dealings among intellect (feeling, thinking, wishing), physical attributes (genetics, biology), spiritual (experiences, beliefs, intuition), the impact of macro and micro, environments on the person, and the feedback from the context. Human conduct happens merely when it is encourage by a need that provokes towards acquiring objectives. Numerous varied forms of needs have been recognized. As per the famous Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs, when the initial level needs are satisfied, human beings provoked to acquire the higher order needs. Those needs which are satisfied cease the person to motivate (Notarstefano, 2007).

Puppim De Oliveira, (2009) stated that discovering the right harmony between an independent growth of destinations and the prevention of their context on the one end and the growth of a competitive economic performance on the other end may be tough. These traits make tourism the catalyst for the conservation and growth of the tourism spots, directly via increasing insight and income carry to them, and indirectly through offering an economic explanation for the facility of such help by others (Leidner, 2007).  International vibes and preferences shift, more than ever the emerging challenge for the European tourism sector is to maintain its competitive advantages while also accepting sustainability identifying that, during the long term, efficiency relies on sustainability. In specific, climate shift is now considered as a basic matter requiring the tourism market to decrease its input to greenhouse gas emissions and the locations to implement changes in the design of demand and in the forms of tourism they provide (Restifo, 2000).

The prospect of European tourism depends on the superiority of the tourist experience, as tourists will identify that destinations that care for the context, their employees and domestic groups are also more likely to show concern for them. To acquire a sustainable and competitive tourism in coming years, the European Commission recommends all participants to regard the following core principles. In order to address and resolve these challenges, European countries should be able to comprehend with the following realistic recommendations which can improve the overall outlook of the tourism industry and enable them to remain highly sustainable within the industry (Sheriff, 2010). These core steps are:

  • Adopt a holistic and incorporate approach
  • Strategic planning to ensure sustainable development of the sector
  • Embracing a suitable pace of growth
  • Engaging all major stakeholders
  • Utilizing optimally the available knowledge
  • Reducing and handling risk
  • Reflecting influences in prices
  • Setting and regarding boundaries
  • Implementing constant monitoring and evaluation.

As per Wilson and Anton Clave, (2013), looking in to the future, the hold up in tourism and travel demand all around the world, as observed in 2012, is predicted to remain persistent. However, offsetting this is an enhancing macroeconomic context, where the forthcoming future of European region break up has diminished, and threats are altering to the upside (Weaver, 2005). A rapid return to healthy growth, particularly in the European area, will remain indefinable in the short term perspective, however. In ascertaining that new development in the tourism sector is of an extent and type in sustaining with the requirements of the domestic community and context, a sustainable management can strengthen the economic activity and competitive status of a destination in the strategic way (Williams and Shaw, 1999). It needs a helpful framework with the engagement of all local and regional stakeholders and a competitive structure within which association and successful leadership are provided.

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