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Italy Global Business Cultural Analysis

Italy Global Business Cultural Analysis


Culture is a prismatic term that has been pondered in detail throughout history and a variety of papers are available on culture and its consequences. Culture is characterised by the renowned Webster dictionary as:

“The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought typical of a population or community at a given time.” (NPS, 2005)

It may appear to the naked eye that the culture of two nations on earth is similar, though they are practically diametrically opposite in nature and characteristics, as is the case when two “West” cultures, the Italians and the English, are taken into account, but when studies of the roots below the surface, both cultures exist under the western umbrella, they are extremely different. Therefore, the goal for a multinational entrepreneur is to recognise these disparities and thereby take advantage of the differences and similarities in the nature and growth of the venture system in order to maximise the returns earned by minimising, to the fullest degree practicable, the effects of cultural differences. Steve Carter (Carter, 1997, 65) suggests that, in addition to economic variables, culture is a subsequently important environmental variable that at the global business level demands massive focus. The aim of this paper is to examine the effects on the global market of the Italian region’s culture on the undertakings undertaken there, and to further explain how and why cultural convergence is becoming an important factor for US undertakings to operate in the Italian region.

Italy Global Business Cultural Analysis

  • Carter. S (1997) Global Agricultural Marketing Management (Marketing and Agribusinesses Texts 3). Rome, Italy. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Steve Carter is a renowned FAO project director, who taught marketing at various universities around the globe, and worked as a consultant in developing countries around the world. This text’s central theme is agribusiness, however each chapter has a distinct objective, and chapter 3 analyzes ‘the cultural environment’ with regards to different anthropological approaches, including Maslow and Geert Hofstede, thereby critically analyzing numerous elements and dimensions of culture with regards to business and marketing. It describes culture as being an ‘environmental uncontrollable’ and illuminates various approaches to culture and its constituent elements.
  • NPS (2005) What is Culture?. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from < http://www.nps.gov/archive/cagr/kids%20corner/fun%20facts/Culture/What%20is%20Culture.htm>
  • Hofstede. G (2009) Geert Hofstede- Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from < http://www.geert-hofstede.com/>
  • Hofstede. G; Hofstede. G J and Minkov. M (2010) Cultures and Organization: Software for the mind- 3rd Edition. United States of America. Geert Hofstede BV. Geert Hofstede is a Dutch academic, known for exploring alternative sources of cultural study and pioneering research on national and organizational cultures, thereby critically analyzing empirical data, and has worked long periods in industry, namely IBM. The third edition explains jargon language with a glossary, making it easier to understand. His main focus is on four dimensions of work-related issues associated with national culture, and the scores in Italy have been analyzed for this paper (taken from his official website). The work reflects slight European bias due to author’s own cultural affinity; however the extensive analysis has been accepted by various authors, including S. Carter above, due to its reliable cross-cultural study, however specific country examples he made use of may not be applicable today but are still highly validated.
  • Moran. T; Harris. P R and Moran. S V (2007) Managing cultural differences: global leadership strategies for the 21st century– 7th Edition. United States of America. Butterworth Heinemann
  • UHY International Limited (2010) Doing Business in Italy. Retrieved April 8th 2010 from <http://www.uhy.com/media/PDFs/doing_business_guides/Doing%20Business%20in%20Italy.pdf>. UHY Ltd is the leading business advisory, consulting and accountancy networks, it is a global entity hence it provides in depth analysis pertaining to cross-border business effectiveness. This report was published in 2010 with specific focus on Italy, with regards to conducting business there, and the business environment. Since it’s a global firm, there is limited or no bias, due to the base being very extensive.
  • World Business Culture (2011) Doing Business in Italy. Retrieved April 8th 2010 from <http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Business-in-Italy.html>. This is a UK based e-publishing website which provides consultancy services and analyzes different aspects of business related phenomenon in countries worldwide. Its main focus is the provision of country specific and comprehensive description of business culture. The study related to the Italian business cultural dimensions have been incorporated in this study.
  • Giovanni. M (2008) ‘Culture and Management in Italy: Tradition, Modernization, New Challenges’, In Eduardo Davel, Jean-Pierre Dupuis, et Jean-François Chanlat (Eds.) ‘Gestion en contexte interculturel: approches, problé-matiques, pratiques et plongées’, Québec, Presse de l’Université Laval et Télé-université (UQAM)
  • Expatfocus (2011) Italy- Business Culture. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from < http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-italy-business-culture>
  • UHY International Limited (2010) Doing business in the United States. Retrieved April 8th 2010 from <http://www.uhy.com/media/PDFs/doing_business_guides/Doing%20Business%20in%20the%20United%20States.pdf>. This is another report published by UHY focusing on the United States in 2010, providing in depth analysis about doing business in the respective country. It is used in this paper for a detailed comparison pertaining to impact of culture in the business sector of both countries under examination.
  • Gorrill. J R (2007) ‘Doing Business in the United States of America | US Social and Business Culture’. CIA World Fact Book 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2011 from < http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20the%20USA.pdf>
  • BuyUSA.gov (2011) Doing Business in Italy: 2011 Country Commercial
  • Guide for U.S. Companies.  U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service and U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved April 8th 2011 from <http://www.buyusa.gov/italy/en/ccg11.html>. This is an official government website of the United States of America providing customized solutions to compete in the business sector abroad, the main focus of this page being the Italian region. It is a state export promotion website hence it can be assumed to be biased, and can have an overestimation of positive outcomes.

British Petroleum Company Business Environment


BP, The British Petroleum Company, is one of the largest international petroleum and petrochemical companies. It is an integrated energy firm involved in oil and gas detection, manufacture, refinement and advertising, and the manufacturing and marketing of petrochemicals. (Bower, 2010, 320) According to Business Week, BP was the third largest public company in Britain and the thirty-first largest in the world. BP was privatised in the 1980s.

The United Kingdom (U.K.) and the United States (U.S.) have active and extensive stock and bond markets, and a primary purpose of financial reporting in both countries is to provide investors and creditors (i.e., suppliers of capital) with information useful for decision making. Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in the U.K. and the U.S. are similar. (Deans, Bob and Peter, 2010, 56) For example, both U.K. and U.S. GAAP require providing for un-collectible accounts and depreciating fixed assets over their useful lives. Nevertheless, differences exist between U.S. GAAP and U.K. GAAP, in terms of accounting standards and financial statement format and terminology.

BP uses historical cost accounting, but its income statement also reports replacement cost information about certain earnings components. BP uses the FIFO inventory valuation method. In the U.K., companies may not use the LIFO method for either tax purposes or financial reporting purposes. Because under LIFO the costs of the latest goods acquired are treated as the costs of the first goods sold, LIFO based cost of goods sold will approximate cost of goods sold computed on a current or replacement cost basis. In turn, this yields a measure of gross margin (or gross profit) under LIFO that reflects the ability of the company to generate revenues in excess of the replacement cost of the goods it sold.

British Petroleum Company Business Environment

Why Gangs are Formed in The United States

Why Gangs are Created in The United States


In terms of gang culture, the United States is one of the most deeply troubled countries. In order to add insult to injury figures, it reveals that gang appearances have risen further in the late 2000s during the previous decade. This elevated incidence of gang violence is higher in metropolitan regions than in rural counties, where some reduction during the same time has been noted. By entering people’s houses, robbing and stealing from companies and manipulating narcotics sales, gangs terrorise communities, among other negative practises. They are, thus, in a community a centre of abuse and weak morality. After being attacked with handguns and blunt guns, several human lives died in their possession. To take control over the territories they rule and to instil terror or harass officials and the general population, they perform these massacres. Gangs are everywhere now; highways, in almost every community, workplace, internet, and daily life spheres. It has been revealed in the United States where cartels are responsible for 80 percent of all crimes committed. The purpose of this paper is to address gangs, why they are created and who is drawn to them and why.

Gang Statistics

Along with a variety of its neighbours, including Mexico and Brazil, the United States has a strong incidence of gang activity. At the end of 2010, gang affiliates were just over one million, associated to more than 25,000 parties (Larence, 2010). Unfortunately, given the tides of violence that they conduct year after year in the US, just 15 percent of the gang community is behind bars. Another truth is that teenagers make up 40 percent, and the remainder are adults, though males and females taking a total of 8 percent are more than 90 percent of all participants. It is necessary to remember that nearly 60% of gangs disallow the participation of women. Gang incidents tend to be more common in communities with at least 250,000 people, while gang-related violence in certain cities with an average of 100,000 inhabitants are still strong at 86 percent (Larence, 2010).

Why Gangs are Formed in The United States

  • Bursik Jr, R. J. and Grasmick, H. G. (1993). Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of  effective community control. Lexington Books.
  • Egley, A., Mason, C. & Miller, J. (2006). The modern gang reader, 3rd ed., Roxbury, Los Angeles, CA.
  • Institute for Intergovernmental Research. (2011). Gang centers merge. Retrieved February 17,  2010, from Iir: http://www.iir.com/Gangs/nygc/default.aspx
  • Juvenile Justice Commission (2010). Gang Awareness Guide: Recognize the Signs. New Jersey  Attorney General. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from http://www.state.nj.us/oag/gang signs-bro.pdf
  • Klein, M. (2006). Street gangs. In A. Egley, The Modern Gang Reader (pp. 105-114). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Larence, E. R. (2010). Combating gangs: Better coordination and performance measurement  would help clarify roles of Federal Agencies and strengthen assessment of efforts. DIANE Publishing.

How Globalisation Has Shaped International Business Growth

How Globalisation Has Shaped International Business Growth

The attempts of firms to enter the global market are often led to failure; the above the phenomenon has been attributed to a number of variables. It seems that not all firms are appropriate prepared in order to operate globally. On the other hand, the potential success of such projects cannot be estimated in advance. The current paper looks at the role of globalisation in international business development. It is made clear in the literature that the size of an organisation is critical for the effective globalisation of the company in question. In either case, it has been shown that globalisation can have a significant effect on international business development, but the mechanism used to achieve this objective is not standardised.

In literature and empirical studies, the role of globalisation in the growth of international business has been illustrated, but academic researchers have been employed to justify the influence of globalisation in international business. Globalization gives companies, in conjunction with Dunning (1999), the ability to extend their operations in the global market, either physically or through the Internet. For example, reference is made to the case of the communications industry where globalisation has created ‘enormous opportunities for expansion and high profits for the major companies in the industry’ (Dunning 141). Merrill Lynch, a financial services firm operating in about 31 nations, is another example used in Dunning’s study to illustrate the relationship between globalisation and international business. (Dunning 141). In accordance with the view of Dunning, as presented above, globalisation will promote the growth of companies internationally; however, such advantage is likely to be available only to large firms, which have the resources necessary for enjoying the benefits of globalisation. Small and medium-sized businesses will face a great deal of difficulty joining the global market; therefore, foreign companies of this size could not compete. In other words, globalisation might help the international growth of firms, but such prospects would mostly include large corporations, as stated in the Dunning (1999) study above.

How Globalisation Has Shaped International Business Growth

The Worthington & Britton (2009) report highlights a different view of globalisation; according to the aforementioned study, the international market is not only relevant to international firms; it is proposed that ‘companies of all sizes should be aware of their international background’ (Worthington & Britton 45). In addition, it is clear that the availability of an expanded market for their products/services is one of the main advantages that globalisation can give companies globally. In other words, for the above-mentioned researcher, the notion of globalisation represents the presence of a globally expanded economy, covering the economies of all countries around the world.

The research by Wall and Minocha (2009) focuses on the use of globalisation in a wide variety of activities/areas, including trade, politics and sociology, to achieve benefits. Globalization is supposed to have specific advantages, particularly with regard to trade: improving the quality and level of trade established internationally between states and organisations (Wall & Minocha 2009); moreover, globalisation could help to ‘increase international capital flows’ (Wall and Minocha 2009). Globalization will also help boost ‘capital movements worldwide’ It is anticipated that globalisation will also greatly support companies that operate worldwide. An significant implication of Wall & Minocha (2009)’s view of globalisation, however, would be the following: not all large corporations would compete with their rivals; the lack of successful management would not enable small/medium-sized companies to gain access to the international market and perform independently.

Works Cited:
  • Ali, Abbas. Globalization of business: practice and theory. London: Routledge, 2000.
  • Dunning, John. Governments, globalization, and international business. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Justin, Paul. International Business. New Delhi: PHI Learning, 2008.
  • Nande, Arvid & Dias, Shaila, International Business and New Trends. Shivaji, Nagar: Nirali Prakashan, 2007.
  • Parhizgar, Kamal. Multicultural behavior and global business environment, London: Routledge, 2002.
  • Prasad, Eswar. Effects of financial globalization on developing countries: some empirical evidence. Washington: International Monetary Fund, 2003.
  • Wall, Stuart, Minocha, Sonal. International Business. Essex: Pearson Education, 2009.
  • Worthington, Ian & Britton, Chris. Business Environment. Essex: Pearson Education, 2009.

Successful Business Strategy Example

Successful Business Strategy Example

Exploring Elements of a Successful Business Strategy

An integral part of today’s market place is business strategy. For the coordination of their operations and structure, all companies require a well-conceived business plan. Strategy is a long-term philosophy that determines its reach and direction in terms of a business and creates a relation between the optimum use of resources in the competitive environment in question and the maximisation of the wealth of shareholders. The secret to commercial success is a corporate plan that is immaculately developed with a consistent frame of mind. When the company suffers from a poor plan, however, then the commercial well-being is hampered and in severe cases may push the firm out of business. “The process of developing and implementing strategy enables managers to understand their customers and competitors.” (Kourdi 2003)

A focused business strategy is the key element to corporate success and balance sheet results. “A business level strategy is an action plan the firm develops to describe how it will compete in its chosen industry or market segment. A business level strategy describes how the firm will compete in the marketplace on a day to day basis and how it intends to do things right.” (Ireland el at 2007)

Successful Business Strategy Example

  • Ireland, R. et al. Understanding Business Strategy – Concepts and Cases, Mason: South Western. 2007
  • Kourdi, J. Business Strategy: A guide to Taking Your Business Forward, 2nd ed. London: Profile Books Limited. 2003
  • Verardo, D. Managing the Strategic Planning Process, Alexandria: American Society Inc. 2000
  • Volkswagen Publications, 2010 Available at: http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/publications/2011/03/Volkswagen_AG_Geschaeftsbericht_2010.-bin.acq/qual-BinaryStorageItem.Single.File/GB_2010_e.pdf [Accessed: 16th March 2011].
  • Aaker, D. & McLoglhin, D. (2010) Strategic Marketing Management – Global Perspectives. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p.9.
  • Kotler, P. et al (2009) Marketing Management – A South Asian Perspective, 13th ed. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley, p.118.
  • Kourdi, J. (2003) Business Strategy: A guide to Taking Your Business Forward, 2nd ed. London: Profile Books Limited, p.7.
  • Lussier, R. (2009) Management Fundamental; Concepts, Applications & Skill Development, 4th ed. Mason: South Western Cengage Learning, p.135.
  • Volkswagen (2010) Publications, [online] Available at: http://www.volkswagenag.com/vwag/vwcorp/info_center/en/publications/2011/03/Volkswagen_AG_Geschaeftsbericht_2010.-bin.acq/qual-BinaryStorageItem.Single.File/GB_2010_e.pdf [Accessed: 18th March 2011].

Mall of America Tourist Attractions

Mall of America Tourist Attractions

The world’s great nations still cherish their ancestors’ past contributions or the nations themselves build history by adding outstanding production to national dignity. Great Wall of China, German castles and Egyptian pyramids are such references to cite. The idea of scheduled worldwide shopping malls to collect all market operations at one location with expansive parking facilities was first introduced in the mid-1930s (Spellmeyer 1993). The United States is now recognised internationally for its state-of-the-art shopping centres. At the end of 1992, America had over 39,000 shopping centres nationwide.

The Mall of America is a retail complex with all the colourful characteristics of a mall. In the United States, it is situated in the twin cities of Bloomington and Minnesota (Mall of America (b) 2011). Thanks to its shopping space, the Mall is the third biggest in North America and second largest in America. For parking purposes, the Mall of America holds more than 13,000 vehicles on seven separate floors of the structure (Mall of America (b) 2011). (Mall of America (b) 2011) The Mall is spread over an area of 95 acres.

Mall of America Tourist Attraction

The expansion of the Grand Mall is under way. The extension would serve to almost twice the scale of the Mall of America. It is estimated that the expansion work would consume approximately 2.1 billion (Mall of America (b) 2011). The project’s extension would draw more visitors. For the fields of schooling and wellness, Step II would be able to produce enormous volumes.

Any bugs are also caused by the Mall of America. The danger that needs extensive preparation and knowledge of terrorist acts is terrorism. To improve the current monitoring and protection infrastructure, such remedial steps are also required.

The Mall of America is a hybrid of a conventional structure and a wide range of amenities under one roof. An indoor amusement park, aquatic sea monster aquarium, magic store, flight simulators, Lego shop, cinema, mountain golf adventure and American girl shop are the main facilities worth noting. Both these qualities of the Mall of America shall be discussed in depth in the following paragraphs.

The paper shall follow the under mentioned sequence:-

  • History of the Mall of America.
  • Services offered by the Mall and tourist interests.
  • Expansion and future prospects.
  • Vulnerabilities to different threats and their Remedial Measures

History of the Mall of America

The idea of the ‘Mall of America’ was first proposed by the Ghermezian brothers of Canada. “The brilliant idea of the same brothers was also the “West Edmonton Shopping Centre of North America (Farrell 2007). The Mall of America is built at the former Bloomington, Minnesota, metropolitan stadium location (Crawford 1992). For building, the levelling off the field began in 1989. The mall was built in 1992 and opened to the public the following year (Mall of America (c) 2011).

Thanks to its immense scale, central management and flexible architecture, the Mall of America has the attributes of all international malls. Mall tourists will get an equal impression of both the western business and American urban terms (Crawford 1992). The Mall reflects the gallery’s past. The idea of the Cleveland Gallery became popular in America in the nineteenth century (Jackson 1996). By positioning home plate on the first floor, the Mall also pays homage to the old location of the metropolitan city (Mall of America (c) 2011).

In the Mall, one seat has been put, which catches the interest of the tourist because of its historical significance (Farrell 2007). The seat was precisely positioned in the original position it occupied in the stadium until the Mall of America was built. Seat is expected to pay tribute to Harmon Killebrew for hitting a home run in 1967 (Crawford 1992).

Mall was given few nicknames prior to its inauguration in 1992 (Spellmeyer 1993). Fewer of the nicknames given to Mall are sprawl of America, the mega mess, the megaMall and in the end simply “the Mall” (Farrell 2007). The Mall attracts more than 40 million visitors annually. Therefore, it is the most visited Mall now in the world.

  • Crawford, M. (1992). The World in a Shopping Mall, pp. 3-30 in Sorkin, M., Variations on a Theme Park: The New American City and The End of Public Space. New York: Noonday.
  • Farrell, James J. (2007). The Mall of America. Retrieved on 14th February 2011 from http://www.oah.org/pubs/nl/2007feb/farrell.html
  • FSE (Fire Safety Engineering). (1995). A Research for the Fire Safety Engineering Design of Buildings. BRE Publications, Watford.
  • Jackson, Kenneth T. (1996). All the World’s a Mall: Reflections on the Social and Economic Consequences of the American Shopping Center. The American Historical Review, Vol. 101, Issue 4, 1111-1121.
  • Mall of America, Phase II a. (2011). Retrieved on 15th February 2011 from http://www.Mallofamericaphase2.com/?#/27922/
  • Mall of America, Phase II b. (2011). Retrieved on 15th February 2011 from http://www.Mallofamericaphase2.com/
  • Mall of America (a). (2011). Attractions. Retrieved on 15th February 2011 from http://www.Mallofamerica.com/attractions/
  • Mall of America (b). (2011). Overview. Retrieved on 15th February 2011 from http://www.Mallofamerica.com/about/moa
  • Mall of America (c). (2011).History. Retrieved on 15th February 2011 from http://www.Mallofamerica.com/about/moa/history
  • Mall of America (d). (2011). Future. Retrieved on 15th February 2011 from http://www.Mallofamerica.com/about/moa/future
  • O’ Dougherty, M. 2006, “Public relations, private security: managing youth and race at the Mall of America” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 24 (1) 131 – 154.
  • Retail Merchandiser. (2011). Mall of America: Realizing a Vision. Retrieved on 15th February 2011 from http://www.retail-merchandiser.com/retail-reports/592-Mall-of-america-realizing-a-vision.html
  • Solar Powered Mobility Networks. (2008). Retrieved on 13th February 2011 from http://www.jpods.com/SolarPowerity NetworkSummary.html
  • Spellmeyer, A. W. (1993). Mall of America: Confounding the Skeptics. Urban Land, 52, 43-56, 81-83.

Impact of Screening Mammography on Mortality from Breast Cancer

Impact of Screening Mammography on Mortality from Breast Cancer

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Research Methodology
  • Review of Literature
  • Conclusion
  • References


            Breast cancer is one of the biggest health threats in North America, since it is the fourth leading cause of death in Canada and 26 percent of cancers identified in women in the United States (Wujcik et al., 2009) (Vahabi and Gastaldo, 2003). For women over 45 in the United States (Wujcik, 2009) and over 50 in Canada, mammography screening is prescribed every other year (Vahabi and Gastaldo, 2003). The American Medical Association, however, needs doctors to clarify all the effects of medication and of any possible therapies, to allow patients to make an educated choice, and to explain the dangers of the doctor’s prescribed treatments. This listing of alternative treatments, under the current legal system, must even include the risks and benefits of non-treatment (Marshall, 2005).

Benefits and Criticisms of Micro-Finance and Micro-Credit

Benefits and Criticisms of Micro-Finance and Micro-Credit


There are many benefits attributed to the supply of micro-credit facilities for women. The most dominant statement of micro-credit proponents is the’ emancipation’ of women through the availability of means of economic self-sufficiency. There have been success reports of micro-credit finance providers starting up their own enterprises and raising enough cash to cover their loans while retaining their small company. There are observational research confirming the finding that women who receive their own income prefer to funnel this income through household consumption spending (Johnson, 2005). In addition, the prevalence of group-based distribution systems has supported the belief that the provision of micro-credit services has had a positive effect on women’s lives, both personally and collectively. Empowerment was more generally calculated in this respect in terms of eight indicators: economic contribution of women to household income; women’s independence or desire to fly without escorts; capacity to make small purchases; ability to make major purchases; financial resources ownership; interest in small purchases; decision-making; independence from dominance of the family; and political consciousness (Hashemi, et al., 1996).

On the topic of consequences, Chen (1997) was one of the first to use this approach to identify three avenues to enable its clientele to create micro-credit programmes. The neural, the visual, and the emotional impacts are known as the three pathways. The cognitive effect measures the distance over which, thanks to their involvement in the course, the abilities and understanding of the learners have increased. Awareness on how to invest, prepare for the future and take better care of personal and household finances is among these. Which also involves learning how to bank sales, learning the virtues of entrepreneurship and diligent work, commitment and strong-mindedness; money management and bank rolling profits; and learning how to take advantage of small business dynamics’ seasonality, diversification, and high inventory turnover.

Benefits and Criticisms of Micro-Finance and Micro-Credit

The second is the influence of thought, which focuses around how women see themselves. The self-confidence, self-reliance, and self-esteem of women, as well as their evolving view of their future as a consequence of it, are included here. Finally, the third direction is the emotional effect, or how the curriculum has altered the participants in terms of their family relationships (Johnson, 2005). The primary aspect of these partnerships is the bond between the participants and their partners. Two divergent mechanisms occur. One is the initial scepticism of the husband regarding the comings and goings of the wife, which is later substituted by an appreciative acknowledgment of her new talents, a higher degree of esteem given to her, and their acceptance of the contribution of the woman to the household profits. There have been instances, though, of husbands voicing indignation towards their spouses for taking so much time away from their household responsibilities, centred on the society in which the pair are rooted (Johnson, 2005).

  • Bourdieu, P  1986   “The Forms of Capital.” In J. G. Richardson (ed.), The Handbook of Theory and Research for Sociology of Education. Greenwood, New York
  • Chen, M  1997  “A Guide for Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services at the Individual Level,” USAID AIMS Management Systems International
  • Coleman, J S   1998  Foundations of Social Theory. Belknap Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Hashemi, S, Schuler, S &  Riley, A  1996  “Rural Credit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh”, World Development, vol.24, issue 4, pp.635–654
  • Johnson, S  2005  “Gender Relations, Empowerment and Microcredit: Moving on from a Lost Decade.” European Journal of Development Research, Jun 2005, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p224-248; DOI: 10.1080/09578810500130831
  • MacKinnon, C. A. 2006  ‘Are Women Human?’  And Other International Dialogues.  Harvard.
  • Putnam, R D  2000  “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital.” Journal of Democracy, vol. 6 issue 1, pp. 65–78.
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  • Goetz, A-M; Sandler, J 2007  “Chapter 13: Swapping gender: from cross-cutting obscurity to sectoral security?  Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations & Challenges, 2007, p161-173, 13p
  • Goetz, A M  2004  “Rethinking Empowerment: Gender and Development in a Global/Local World (Book)” .International Feminist Journal of Politics, Mar2004, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p159-161
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  • Nussbaum, M C  2008  “Robin West, Jurisprudence and Gender: Defending a Radical Liberalism.”. University of Chicago Law Review, Summer2008, Vol. 75 Issue 3, p985-996
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Benefits and Reasons for Doing Business in Australia

Benefits and Reasons for Doing Business in Australia

Executive Summary

Managers need to learn the international process of operating and running business in the same way that they do in their own backyard if the world economy continues to grow (Lane et al, 2005). Foreign companies, as a field of study and practise, comprise public and private sector activities affecting persons or organisations from more than one national entity, authority or colony. Currently, Australia has one of the world’s best markets and provides several benefits for tourists, exporters and multinational companies searching for a foothold in the Asia Pacific region. Australia has a phenomenal array of life types that are exceptional relative to the rest of the planet, representing its social-political values and refugees through its vibrant society and lifestyle. The international business climate is perceived, according to Aswathappa (2010), to be the cumulative total of all the external factors operating on the organisation as it interacts with its global and domestic markets. Understanding the Australian market atmosphere in a business deal will alleviate stress and make it profitable and fun for all business parties (Nolan 1996). Australia maintains democratic harmony and has a regional government structure of responsibilities that are usually allocated through representative parliaments between the federal government and state governments. The foreign investment strategy of Australia promotes FDIs that are compliant with community priorities and are necessary to register and receive FIRB approval in some categories, such as new venture idea, investment in sensitive industries, purchase of properties and securities, and real estate (Feslers, 2010). According to the AMB Nation Risk Survey, Australia is in a Country Risk Tier (CRT) 1 area with very low levels of economic, political and financial risk and 18 years of continuous economic development (2010). As recorded in the World Bank survey, and also because of low risk factors, with such rich natural resources and diversity in socioeconomic and political backgrounds, Australia is the best place to launch a new enterprise.


The phase of globalisation has made it necessary for firms to extend their trading interests outside their national borders and to reach the world market and to compete in the global market. If the global economy begins to expand, managers need to learn the multinational process of working and running business in the same manner as they do in their own backyard (Lane et al, 2005). In order to succeed and grow in the foreign world, competitive businesses follow a global outlook and strategy, which is a challenge for corporations to cope with the dynamic environment (Punnett, 2010). As an area of research and practise, foreign enterprise involves public and private sector practises involving individuals or entities of more than one national state, jurisdiction or colony. The impact will be different from the strictly domestic in terms of their economic well-being, political standing, belief abilities or expertise, foreign business since it includes working successfully in multiple national sovereignties, in broadly disparate situations, with citizens living with different value structures and structures, legal regimes, etc. It is necessary and crucial to take a strategic view, taking into account the domestic climate of the country chosen for expansion, the socio-economic environment, the nature of the international economic and political framework, and corporate capital, in order to make a movement or take a decision on international expansion. This paper presents the benefits and reasons for doing business in Australia, as well as arrangements and services in the context of incentive, such as some exemptions given for the promotion of foreign investment by the host nation.

Benefits and Reasons for Doing Business in Australia

Background on the Country

Currently, Australia has one of the world’s best markets and provides several benefits for tourists, exporters and multinational companies searching for a foothold in the Asia Pacific region. With no banking difficulties, the nation has been able to survive the latest global financial crisis; it was the only one of the 33 industrialised economies to report positive growth during 2009 (Felsers, 2010). It is the world’s oldest and sixth biggest nation with a strong and successful economy (Australian Government, n.d.). On the territory of 7,682,300 sq km there lives a culturally diverse society (Australian Government, n.d.). The total population is comprised of aboriginals and migrants and exceeds 21 million (Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs 2010). Australia has revamped its economy in recent years and become more internationally oriented with its economy being converted from largely inward looking, fiercely protected and heavily dependent agricultural activities to highly competitive and outwardly focused on high growth markets. The nation provides number of opportunities to the companies who want to do business in Australia. For buyers, Australia offers commodity and intermediate goods, as well as a range of highly advanced products. It has liberalized its investment regime, welcoming overseas investment to broaden and sustain many of its agricultural, industrial and service initiatives (Nolan, 1996.) The country has low unemployment rate; consumer and business confidence at above average levels,  it is one of the best place for the foreign investors to expand their organization which is supported by various factors like affluent concentrated consumer market, highly educated workforce, business-friendly regulatory environment, stable political environment and sophisticated technology and professional support services (Felsers, 2010). 

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Use of Internet Technologies in Qatar Airways

Use of Internet Technologies in Qatar Airways

Table of Contents

  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • E-Business Background
  • E-Marketing
  • Web Design
  • Business-to-Business
  • The Intelligent Airport
  • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Appendix A –  Categories, Factors and Weights for Airline Web Assessment
  • Appendix B – E-commerce Strategy and Industry Analysis for Qatar Airways
  • Bibliography/ References

List of Figures

  • Figure 1: Air Passenger traffic Carried by Various Airlines registered in Regions around the World
  • Figure 2: Average Seat Load Factor, (Percentage of Available Seat Capacity Filled with Passengers), for Airlines Registered in the Middle East

List of Tables

  • Table 1: Airline Web Assessment Index for various Middle East Airline Websites
  • Table 2: Categories, Factors and Weights for Airline Web Assessment

Use of Internet Technologies in Qatar Airways